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president, united and political

CUSHING, Caleb, American jurist and diplomatist: b. Salisbury, Mass., 17 Jan. 1800; d. Newburyport, Mass., 2 Jan. 1879. His in tellectual abilities manifested themselves early. He entered Harvard College at 13 and was graduated in 1817. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar at 22 and soon acquired an practice, standing with Rufus Choate (q.v.) at the head of the Essex bar. He was a member of Congress 1835-43, and in the last named year, having left the Whig party, was appointed by President Tyler first United States commissioner to China. He filled the post brilliantly, making a treaty so full and clear as to detail that it was the leading authority in settling disputes until 1860, when foreigners were allowed to enter Peking. He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Mexican War, raising a regiment and accompanying it to Mexico, for which he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He was Attorney-General of the United States 1853-57, and was president of the Democratic convention in Charleston, S. C., in April 1860. During the Civil War

period he was several times employed on con fidential missions by President Lincoln and the heads of departments, and in 1868 was sent to Bogota to settle a diplomatic difficulty, which he did successfully. In 1866 he was member of a commission to revise and codify the laws of Congress; he was appointed counsel before the Geneva Arbitration Tribune 1871-72; and was Minister to Spain 1874-77. His legal deci sions were distinguished both for sagacity and professional erudition. He filled a large place in the political history of his time. He pub lished Principles of Political Econ omy> (1826) ; of Newburyport) (1826) ;