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CUTTYHUNK, Mass., the most southerly island in Buzzard's Bay. It was on this island that Bartholomew Gosnold landed, on 25 May 1602, and there established the first settle ment of white men in that part of the world. He named the island after Queen Elizabeth, calling it Elizabeth Isle. The settlement did not continue a full month before it was aban doned, the colonists returning to England. It is now used chiefly as a place of summer re sort. The United States Life-Saving Station was established there in 1889 and the house of the Massachusetts Humane Society in 1847. The site of Gosnold's fort was identified in 1797. The literature of the subject is now con siderable. The publication in England of the ejournalistsa of the voyage helped to pave the way for the later successful plantations of Pilgrims and Puritans. In celebration of the 300th anniversary of the initial settlement of white men in New England, a tower, built of pebbles and cement, with tablet in honor of Gosnold, was reared and dedicated with oratory and song in 1903, the speakers being Charles Francis Adams, Rev. Dr. Leonard, and William Elliot Griffis, whose lecture in Boston on Gosnold, in 1902, suggested the carrying out of the project. Consult New England Magazine (Boston 1897).

CUVIER, Georges Chretien Leo pold Dagobert, BARON DE, French naturalist and the founder of the science of comparative anatomy: b. Montbeliard, France, 23 Aug. 1769; d. Paris, 13 May 1832. After finishing his edu cation at Stuttgart he accepted the situation of tutor in a Protestant family in Normandy. The Abbe Texier, whom the troubles of the time had driven into exile from the capital, intro duced him by letter to Jussieu and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Several memoirs, written about this time, and transmitted to the latter, estab lished his reputation and procured his admission to two or three of the learned societies in Paris. In 1800 he was appointed successor to Dauben tim as professor of natural history at the Col lege de France, and in 1802 succeeded Mertrud in the chair of comparative anatomy at the Garden of Plants. From that time he devoted himself steadily to the studies which have im mortalized his name. Cuvier's

oirs and works on these subjects show a master mind in the study of zoology ; and extending the principles laid down in his comparative anatomy to the study of palaeontology, he was enabled to render immense service to geology. Starting from the law that there is a correlation of forms in organized beings— that all the parts of each individual have mutual relations with each other, tending to produce one end, that of the existence of the being that each living being has in its nature its own proper functions, and ought .therefore to have forms appropriated for that function; and that consequently the analogous parts of all animals have received modifications of form which en able them to be recognized — he was able to ascertain from the inspection of a single fossil bone, not only the family to which it ought to belong, but the genus to which it must be re ferred. Even the very species of animal was thus identified, and the restoration of its exter nal form as it might have lived and died be came in his hands an object of certainty and precision. His ; Lee, (1845) ; de Blairville,

kieve-TV fle're, Alfred Auguste, French author: b. Paris, 18 March 1802; d. there, 18 Oct. 1887. He was educated in the College Louis-le-Grand, be came private secretary to Louis Bonaparte, ex king of Holland, in 1819; tutor to the Duke of Aumale in 1827, and entered the staff of the Journal des Debats in 1834. He was made a mem ber of the Academy in 1866. Among his works are (1854) ;