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CYNICS, a school ofphilosophers founded by a pupil of Socrates, at Athens about 380 B.C. Opinions differ as to the origin of the name. It is possible that it may have been derived from the gymnasium called Cyno sarges (q.v.), where Aristippus first delivered his lectures; or from the Greek word for dog (Kk

growth of the desire for simplicity. They had some respect for mental training, as the only thing which would free men from the slavery of ignorance and false standards. However, this philosophy is interesting as a mark of the disposition of the time; an indication of the disintegration of Greek society into individuals. Its very cosmopolitanism was negative; it con sisted of denial of allegiance to any civilized community rather than a belief in world citizenship. To the Cynic philosophy, despite its obscurity of thought and its incomplete vision, we owe two great ideas: the responsi bility of the individual as a moral unit; and the supremacy of the power of the will. On these, with better insight and maturer psy chology, the Stoics built their saner philosophy. Besides the founder, the most famous of the Cynics were Diogenes of Sinope (412-323 }Lc.), Crates of Thebes (about 328 with his wife, Hipparchia, Menippus (about 6o and Zeno (qq.v.) ; and in the later Roman period, Demetrius, CEnomaus and Demonax. (See SOCRATES; CYRENAICS ; STOICS; EPICUREANS). Consult Windelband, of Philosophy/ (English trans. by Tufts, London and New York 1910) i Heinze, M., (Der Eudamonismus in der gnechischen Philosophic> (Leipzig 1883) ; Zeller, E., and the Socratic Schools' (English trans. by Reichel 1877) ; Gomperz, (Greek Thinkers' (English trans. 1905) • Caird, E., (Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers' (1904) ; Mulloch, F. W., philosophorum Gracortun> (Paris 1867).