CYPRESS, the popular name for members of the genus Cupressus and for certain specks of the related genera, Taxodium and Chamee cyparis. There are about a dozen species of Cupressus, which are trees or sometimes shrubs with small aromatic, evergreen opposite leaves and tiny moncecious solitary flowers, the pistil late developing into almost globular cones con taining numerous seeds which mature the sec ond season. The best-known species is prob ably the common European cypress (C. semper virgins) which has been introduced into the United States. It is a stately tree of about 80 feet, of remarkable longevity, and of wide utility principally on account of its remarkably durable wood, which is highly resistant to the attacks of insects. It is yellowish or reddish, hard and dense and is used in cabinet work and in the making of musical instruments. Some writers believe it is the °cedar° and also the °gopher° wood mentioned in the Bible. C. torulosa is probably the tallest species; it is a native of the Himalayas and attains a height of 150 feet. The hardiest species and perhaps the one most frequently planted is C. macna biana, a bush with several small trunks or a small, dense, pyramidal tree of about 20 feet It is a native of California, where it is very popular in private grounds and public parks. Another popular Californian species is C. macro carpa, generally known as the Monterey cy press. It usually grows about 40 feet tall but occasionally nearly doubles that height. It thrives well even upon poor soils and makes a rapid growth under favorable conditions, but is more susceptible to frost than the preceding species. Numerous horticultural varities of diversely colored foliage and varying habit and height have been developed. C. funebris, a native of China, ranks about with the last-mentioned species in hardness, rather excels it in height, and is frequently planted on account of its wide-extending, pendulous branches and twigs.
The cedar of Goa (C. lusitanica) is of un known habitat but is frequently planted in southern Europe.
The bald or deciduous cypress (Taxodium distickum) is one of the most valuable of American timber trees, its straight and close grained, soft, brown wood being highly es teemed where exposure to moisture is expected and where durability but not great strength is demanded. It is very largely used in green house construction. Its range is from Delaware to Missouri and southward to the Gulf States, being especially abundant in swamps, but it will thrive with a more or less noticeable change of habit in dry ground. It is a highly orna mental tree often 150 feet tall and sometimes more than 10 feet in diameter, with but tressed trunk, brown, flaky bark, erect or spreading branches bearing narrow light green leaves, purplish staminate flowers and nearly globular cones. The spread of the branches in old specimens is often more than 80 feet. It has developed a large number of horticultural varieties and is very popular as a park tree as far north as New York, about its northern limit of hardiness. In the Southern swamps the trees develop %tees° from their roots. These knees, which are sometimes 10 feet tall, are supposed to act as aerators, but their func tion is not definitely known. When fully de veloped their tops are above high-water level.
The species of Chamecyparis best known as cypress are C. obtusa, the hinoki cypress, and C. pisifera, the Sawara cypress. C. lawson iana, Lawson's cypress, is a native of the Pa cific Coast States; the other two are natives of eastern Asia. They attain heights of about 100 and 120 feet, respectively, have developed numerous horticultural varieties and are fre quently planted in parks for their ornamental foliage and graceful habit of growth. See CEDAR.