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Czuczor

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CZUCZOR, tsoo'tsor, Gergely, Hungarian .poet and philologist: b. And6d, 17 Dec. 1800; d. Pest, 9 Sept. 1866. He was a Benedictine monk, and the eroticism of the first collection of his 'Poetical Works' (1836) brought on him stern animadversion from his superiors. From 1825 to 1835, he was professor in the gymnasia at Raab and Komorn. He left the latter to ac cept a post as second secretary and keeper of the archives of the Hungarian Academy. Un der these auspices he began the edition of the great lexicon of the Hungarian language pub lished in six volumes 1861-74, of which four volumes were edited by him. His works are not scientifically accurate, because of his ignor ance of comparative philology. He is best re membered for his poems, a later edition of which appeared at Pest in 1858. His two fine hero-ballads, 'The Battle of (1824) and Diet of Arad' (1828) brought a passionate appeal to Hungarian national senti ment, and was imprisoned for it. Among his prose works are legends and translations of Latin authors and a (Life of Washington.' . .

fourth letter of the English alpha bet and the third consonant, is a sonant dental corresponding to the mute dental T. It holds the same place in the alphabets of the Phoenician, Syrian, Chaldee, Hebrew, Samaritan, Greek and Latin, and in those of all the modern European lan guages; except the Russian and the two or three others which retain the alphabet; in these the symbol of delta is the fifth letter. The most ancient fortns' o•.the symbol D in the languages of -Phcenicia, Palestine,, etc., are angular with the vertex pointing to'the left, for example, de3, <1, and the most ancient Creek form was the same angular figure' reversed, v (changed afterward to o). In some ancient Greek inscripitons in Hellas itself and in the Greek colonies the angular form of the primitive delta (D) is rounded to the form D, and this form was adopted by the Latins, who got it front the Greeks who settled in Campania, now the province of Caserta. For the later history of the letter see the plate to Ateniott. The sound of D is produced by pressing the end of the tongue against the upper gums and then forcing the vocalized bres.thinto the rtioutIL? Tat Plaint of contact of the tip of the torque with the gums in the sound df D in English pronounciation- is a little higher above the in, sertion of the teeth than when the D of those speaking other languages is -sounded,. and the

same is to be said of the prOduction. of the sound of T. Hence the English sound is 'alveo. tar rather than dental. The letter D in very many English words represents an element in the speech ' of our early language ancestors which became for the Greeks. theta (0, th ), for the Latins f, for the Germans I, for example, Eng. deer, Gr. !tip, Lat, fera, Ger. tier. More curious is the change of the Greek name Odysl seas to the form in Latin; and 'within the Latin language itself 'the change of olor to odor, and from darrirno to adbiter to arbiter. In many words in English d is inter• calated or appended for phonetic- reasons, for example, Old English- thonor becomes thunder, Old English soon becomes sound, Norman; Eng-+ lish jaunisse becomes jaundice; on the other hand the d is dropped out of some words, • for example, Old English wobdbind-betomes wood. bine; godsib, gossip; godspel, gospel.

D is the Latin numerical symbol for 500. The ancient Romans represented a thousand by the symbol 6 (later •written 0), and they took one-half of that symbol to express half a thousand, 500. ' The symbol D with a horizontal stroke over it (Y5) stood for 5,000. • In Roman personal names D stood for the prmnomen Decimus; thus D. Junius Brutus.

As an initial D is used: 1. In chronology, (I) for Domini, genit. sing. of Latin. Lord, as • A.D.—Ann° ,Dontini---in the -year of our Lord. (2) for died.

2. In music, as an abbreviation for Discantus, Destra, etc.

3. In university degrees, etc., for Doctor, as of Medicine; Doctor of Ovil Law ; p.D.- Doctor of Djvinity; Doctor of Science, etc.

4. In English titles, for duke.

5. For Latin Deus God and Di:nit Divine.

D .as a symbol is used: 1. In chemistry, didymium.

2. In-music, for the second note of, the nor mal scale of C corresponding to the Italian re, or for any, symbol or lcey on a keyboard corre note. It is also used for the kmrs haying this note a key note. , 3. In biblical criticism, for the Beza mann script of • the • Greek New Testament.

• 4. In commerce, for English penny or pence, as f a. d.—• pounds, shillings and pence, being the initial of Latin denarius.