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Dairy Industry

pounds, cheese, products, milk, butter, total, cows, exports and united

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DAIRY INDUSTRY, American. Com pared with other farming and agricultural in dustries in the United States, dairying is of considerable import and shows great develop ment during the last two or three decades; in fact each decade far outstrips the preceding in every line of the industry. According to gov ernment statistics, the leading dairy States are New York, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, Minnesota, Michigan, California, Indiana, Massachusetts and Missouri. Butter is made extensively in. all these States, but Wis7 consin, New York, Michigan, Ohio and Penn sylvania are the heaviest producers of cheese, the varieties including many imitations of fort eign cheese. Dairy farms are developing rapidly in sections where *heat and other crops have become unprofitable. Recently the industry has made great progress in the Pacifii Coast States and in the Southern States, It has been proved that cows can be kept and good butter and cheese can be made in al most any district where suitable coarse fodder can be produced. It is often possible to grow more abundant and better fodder crops than are furnished by the natural grasses. Well or cistern water may take the place of the flowing spring. Favorable freight rates and fast retrigerator-car transportation lines have the effect of placing the distant dairyman near the markets where grains can be purchased and his products can be disposed of to the best advantage. Dairying seems to be the one branch of agriculture least affected by condi tions of soil and climate.

Dairying has advantages over many other i kinds of farming. It improves the land instead of 'wearing it out, because the products of the dairy which leave the farm permanently are not rich in plant food, as is the case with field crops, and it provides fertilizer in the form of manure, which is of immense value for enrich ing poor soil. It furnishes a profitable way of using certain farm products, such as grass and straw, that otherwise would be valueless. It provides cheap by-products in the form of skimmed milk, buttermilk and whey, which can be made into human food or very profitably fed to calves and other animals. It can be com bined with other forms of agriculture. Per haps best. of all, it engages the farmer in pay ing work for the entire year. For these reasons the general appearance of any section where dairying is extensively followed shows thrift and progress. The growth of the dairy industry is sometimes checked temporarily by unfavor able economic conditions, such as high cost of feeds and high prices of beef.

The United States census for 1910 and esti mates for 1917, made by the Dairy Division, United States Department of Agriculture, give the following dairy statistics: Cows on farms and ranges (1910) 21,801.000

Cows in towns and cities (1910, est.) 1,000,000 Total cows in the United States (1910) 22,801,000 Census report for icao: Total milk produced in the United States, gallons (1910) 7,466,406,384 Butter made on farms, pounds (1910) 994,650,610 Butter made in factories, pounds (1910) 627,145,865 Total butter made, pounds 1,621,796,475 =.===.

Cheese made on farms, pounds (1910) 9,405,864 Cheese made in factories, pounds (1910) 311,175,730 Total cheese made, pounds 320,581,594 Total dairy products factories, 1910 8,479 Total dairy products factories, 1914 7,982 Average yield of milk per cow in United States, gallons (1910) 362 Dairy Division estimates for 1917: Number of cows required to supply the various dairy products: Cows Milk for consumption as milk 9,813,008 Butter (at 177 pounds, per cow, per year) 9,334,880 Cheese (at 371 pounds, per cow, per year) 1,138,400 Ice cream 842,416 Condensed milk 660,272 Milk for dairy calves 979,024 Total dairy cows on farms, eat 22,768,000 The aggregate annual value of dairy products is estimated to exceed $500,000,000 for the year 1900, while in 1910 the value, exclusive of home consumption, was $656,301,246. Exports of dairy products, with the exception of cheese and condensed milk, have always been small. Exports of cheese gradually increased from about 5,000,000 pounds in 113 to 150,000,000 in 1880, when they amounted to one-half of the production. From that date they gradually de clined until 1915, when they again reached the low ebb of 1850. War orders for cheese com menced in 1915 and by 1917 exports reached 66,000,000 pounds. Exports of condensed milk have not been a very important item in our for eign trade in dairy products. In 1910 they amounted to about 13,333,333 pounds. The war caused a very great increase, however, and in 1916, exports totaled about 160,000,000, and in 1917 about 260,000,000 pounds. The demands of foreign markets differ somewhat from do mestic requirements, but the fact that butter and cheese which will satisfy foreign tastes can be supplied from this country has been proved many times by the experience of exporters as well as by trial shipments made by the De partment of Agriculture. There are great pos sibilities for American dairy products in other countries, and these will be developed as soon as our production is permanently in excess of our needs. The annual exports of butter have exceeded 25,000,000 pounds but twice since 1900, and those of cheese had not reached 50, 000,000 since 1900, except for the years 1915 and 1917, due to conditions arising from the European War.

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