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Dalmatia

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DALMATIA.. A crownland of Austria Hungary forming part of the kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia and situated along the eastern Adriatic coast. It is bounded to the north by Croatia, to the east by Bosnia Herzegovina, to the south by Montenegro. The area is 4,956 square miles. There are about 500 islets of which about 50 are of appreciable size and importance, belonging naturally to Dalmatia and known generally under the name of Dal matian Archipelago. The largest (exceeding 100 square kilometers) and most fertile are •3razza, Lessina, Curzola, Maeda, Lissa, Solta and Lagosta. The numerous channels, straits, gulfs, bays, fjords and the hills and rocks of the mainland branching from the mountain range of the Dinaric Alps, give the country a most picturesque aspect. The Gulf of Cattaro, which is in the extreme south of Dalmatia, is one of the finest harbors in Europe. The principal rivers are Neretva, Zrmatua, Krka and Cetina, but there are many rivulets and brooks whose course is interrupted by frequent cascades of incomparable beauty. The climate is moderate as the thermometer never shows below zero (C) in winter and the heat in sum mer is tempered by many winds. The most important towns are Dubrovnik (Ragusa), Zadar (Zara), Shibenik (Sebenico), Blato and Kotor (Cattaro). By a recent census the population of Dalmatia was computed to 645, 666 consisting chiefly of Serbo-Croatians (about 95 per cent). According to the same census there were 510,669 inhabitants speaking Serbo Croatian language, 3,065 persons speaking other tongues and 18,025 speaking Italian. Serbo Croatian is the official language but the use of Italian, which is known to the majority of urban population, is also permitted. Notwith standing the dearth' of water and forests the vegetation of Dalmatia is very diverse. The 'rich forests were cut down by the Venetians for the construction of their mighty fleets. The fields sown with cereals of all description cover 11 per cent of the entire area. The chief products of Dalmatia are wine, which is of an exceptionally good quality, and olive oil. Agri culture is very popular and prosperous in the islands but the most usual industries and manu factures are almost totally absent. Shipbuild ing, wine and oil-pressing are the principal in dustries. Cattle and horses are very scarce 'while sheep and goats are numerous and of good breed. Asphalt, lignite and salt are mined. The ports of Dalmatia are very active as the bulk of the Austro-Hungarian foreign commerce is conducted through them. There arrive about 20,000 merchant vessels every year. Olive oil, maraschino cordial, fish, meat, honey, wine and asphalt are exported. Cereals are a 'principal item of import. The ways of com munieation in the interior of the country are wholly inadequate chiefly on account of the rocky configuration of the soil, despite the good lesson which Napoleon I taught the inhabitants while he ruled the Illyrian provinces. There are about 145 miles of railway. Dalmatian waters teem with many varieties of delicious fish and fishing constitutes one of the chief re sources of the inhabitants of the coast. Sar dines and tunny-fish are caught in enormous quantities.

Education is obligatory between the ages of 6 and 12 and there is hardly a village to be found without at least one primary school. There are two theological seminaries at Zara and many secondary, naval, commercial and professional schools and agricultural colleges, all of which are supported by the Imperial Government. At Ragusa and Cattaro there are naval colleges which supply officers for the mer cantile marine. In 1911 there were 458 elemen tary schools with 58,000 enrolled pupils.

Prior to the Roman invasion of Dalmatia the country was populated by the Illyrians against whom a military expedition was sent by Rome under the leadership of Consul Origul in the year 156 s.c. but the definite subjugation of that

province was effected by Augustus on the occasion of pacification of the Pannonians an. 6. The Illyrians were occupying them selves chiefly with cattle raising, agriculture and seafaring. Dalmatian pirates are notorious in the history of navigation in the Adriatic. The language and customs of the Dalmatians soon gave way to the Latin, and Diocletian, born in Dalmatia, transferred his capital to Spalato The ruins of the imperial palace are still to be seen in that town. Upon the fall of the Roman Empire in 395 Dalmatia was apportioned to its eastern part only to be conquered, about a century later, by the Ostro goth kings. In the course of the 6th century the Avars took hold of Dalmatia but had soon to yield it to the irresistible invasions of the Serbians who divided the entire province in several counties with Belgrade (Zara Vecchia) as the capital. The influence of Venice was felt•in Dalmatia as early as the 10th century, but it was only in 1104 that Doge Dominico Minieli succeeded in defeating the Hungarian king, Koloman, who had effected a union with the Croatians and proclaimed himself king of Croatia-Dalmatia. The city of Belgrade was demolished by the Venetians. After the fall of the Republic of Venice (1797) Austria, by virtue of the Treaty of Campo Formio obtained sovereign rights over Dalmatia but had soon (1805) to cede it to Napoleon who incorporated that province in his famous Illyrian Kingdom. The little Republic of Dubrovnik (Ragusa) re tained its autonomy until 1808 but Napoleon abolished it in that same year. By the Treaty of Vienna (1815) Dalmatia was again given to Austria. In 1869, when the Austrian Govern ment introduced in Dalmatia universal con scription, a rebellion took place in Krivoshiya and Bocca di Cattaro and the Austrians suffered great losses in men and provisions. However the year 1881 saw a fresh insurrection which lasted until 1882 when it was put down with great cruelty by the Imperial army. Emperor Francis Joseph I, by his acts of 26 Feb. 1861 and 1 Jan. 1868, granted charters whereby Dal matia forms part of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia-Slivonia-Dalinatia whose King is the sovereign of Austria-Hungary. The head of the government in Zagreb bears the title of Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia. In the Imperial Parliament in Vienna Dalmatia is represented by 11 deputies elected by universal suffrage of whom nine are Croatians and two Serbians. The principal instrument of the public local government is the Diet (Sabor). Its power, organization and functions are de fined by the constitution of the country. The seat of the local administration is in Zadar (Zara) and the executive authority is vested in the person of the governor appointed by the Austrian emperor. He is the chief of the provincial administration of the state, of the board of education, the public finances and the postal and telegraph services.

Bibliography (see also CROATIA-Stavorta). Salcchinsla, I. K.; Tuttle Uspomene iz Kroat ske, Dalmacije, etc.' (Zagreb 1873) ; Iriarte, 'Les bords de l'Adriatique et le Montenegro' (Paris 1878) • De Nolhac, Dalmatie> (Paris 1882) ; Pisrrn, 'Les possessions venetiennes en Dalmatie> (Paris 1890) ;. Jackson, 'Dalmatia, the Quarnero and Istria' (Oxford 1887) ; Hutchinson, F. K., 'Motoring in the Balkans along the highways of Dalmatia, Montenegro, the Herzegovina and Bosnia' (Chicago 1909) Jelich, 'Das alteste kartographische Denkmal iiber die rbmische Provinz Dalmatien) (in Wissemschaftliche Mitteilungen aus Bosnien and der Herzegovina, Vienna 1900) ; Krshnjavi, I., 'Dalmatiens and Bosniens staatsrechtliche Zu kunft> (Oesterreichische Rioulschass, October, Briinn, 1906) ; Lux, J. A., 'Reisebilder aus Dal matien,> (Leipzig 1908).