DARMSTADT, dfirm'stiit, Germany, capi tal of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, near the Darm River, 15 miles south of Frankfort. It consists of an old and a new town. The former, which is the business part of the town, is very poorly built; the houses are old, and the streets narrow and gloomy. The new town is laid out with great regularity, and has handsome squares and houses. Among the remarkable buildings are the old palace, with a library of 564,000 vol umes and 4,000 MSS.; a picture gallery with some good examples of the early German and Dutch masters. The chef-d'oeuvre is the 'Madonna of the Burgomaster Meyer' by Holbein the Younger. It has a museum of natural history, the Roman Catholic church, patterned after the Pantheon, the Stadtkirche, and the Rathhaus, or town-hall, built in 1580. Other notable features include the new palace, the palace of Prince Henry, the new town-hall, theatre, and the Herrngarten, a fine public garden and park. Darmstadt has some iron
foundries, breweries, and other manufactures, and its industries are increasing, but it depends more upon the residence of the. Court than upon either trade or manufactures. The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, carpets, hats, tobacco, chemicals, scientific instruments, playing cards, and beer. It owns its own elec tric and gas plants, and its schools, and chari table institutions are numerous for its popula tion. Justus von Liebig, the scientist, was born here in 1803 Darmstadt appears as Darmund stadt in the 1 lth century. It acquired municipal rights in 1330 and became in 1567 the capital of Hesse-Darmstadt. It was burned by the French in 1688 and 1693, but attained great prosperity toward the end of the 18th century. Consult Zemin and Worner 'Darmstadt und seine Umgebung' (Zurich 1890). Pop. 87,089.