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plants, natural, origin, species, theory and time

DARWIN, Charles Robert, English nat uralist: b. Shrewsbury, 12 Feb. 1809; d. Down, Kent, 19 April 1882. His father, Robert Waring Darwin, was a distinguished physician of that town, the son of a still more distinguished father, Erasmus Darwin (q.v.). He was edu cated at Shrewsbury School, and at the universi ties of Edinburgh and Cambridge. He early devoted himself to the study of natural history and in 1831 was appointed naturalist to H.M.S. Beagle, then about to sail on an extended sur veying expedition. He served without salary and paid a portion of his expenses op condition of having at his own disposal such collections of specimens as he might make during the voyage. The vessel sailed in December 1831 and did not return till October 1836, after having circum navigated the globe. Darwin came home with rich stores of knowledge, part of which he soon gave to the public in such works as his of Researches into the Natural History,' etc. (1839), of the countries visited; the 'Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle' (1840-42) ;

warmly taken up by some of the ablest men of science, and now there are few who have not in whole or in part given their adhesion to the principle. The rest of his works are largely based on the material he had accumulated for the elaboration of the great theory. (See DAR WINIAN THEORY; ORIGIN OF SPECIES, THE). The principal are a treatise on the of Orchids' (1862) 'Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants' (1864) ; 'The Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication' (1868) ; 'Descent of Man and Selections in Re lation to Sex' (1871) ; 'The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals' (1872) ; 'In sectivorous Plants' (1875) ; 'Cross and Self Fertilization' (1876) ; 'Different Forms of Flowers' (1877) ; 'The Power of Movement in Plants' (1880) ; 'The Formation of Vege table Mould) (1881) ; the last dealing ex haustively with the common earth-worm. Dar win was buried in Westminster Abbe'. Consult 'Life and Letters of Charles Darwin' (1887) by his son, Francis Darwin; 'More Letters of Charles Darwin (1905) ; and volumes pub lished on the occasion of his centenary (1909), 'Foundations of the Origin of Species' • 'Fifty Years of Darwinism' (by American authors) ; and 'Darwin and Modern Science' (by foreign authors).