DAVIDSON, James Wheeler, American capitalist: b. Austin, Minn., 14 June 1872. He was graduated from the Northwestern Military Academy, Highland Park, Ill., in 1891. He was a member of the Peary Artic Expedition to the North Polar regions, 1893-94; war correspond ent with Chinese army, 1895; and with the Japa nese army, 1895-96. In June 1897, he was ap pointed by President Cleveland consular agent for the island of Formosa, where he remained nine years, during which time be wrote numerous monographs on Formosan affairs, as well as a large volume entitled 'Formosa Past and Present' (1890), which is consid ered as a standard book of reference on this subject. In 1903 he obtained leave of absence, and under the auspices of the Russian Com munications Department made a careful survey of the territory adjacent to the Asian section of the Trans-Siberian Railway, collecting mate rial for a complete report of this territory, ex tracts from which appeared in the Century Magazine (April-June 1903). In 1904 he was appointed to Dalny, Manchuria, one of the political consulates, where he was expected to promote Secretary Hay's door" policy.
Later he became consul at Arming, Manchuria, and commercial attaché to the American lega tion, Pekin, and special agent of the Depart ment of State. He was appointed by President Roosevelt in 1905 consul-general at Shanghai. He was decorated by the Emperor of Japan in 1895 with Order of Rising Sun for services ren dered Japanese army in capturing the capital of Formosa. He is a fellow of the Royal Geo graphical Society and member of the Asiatic Society, the Explorers' Club and the Authors' Club. He has large lumbering interests and in 1915 was president of eight banks in North Da kota. His publications include 'Formosa Cam phor and Its Future' (1895) ; 'A Review of the History of Formosa) (1896) ; 'Formosa Under Japanese Rule' (1903), 'and contributions to the publications of scientific societies and magazines.