DE GERANDO, zha-rati-do, Joseph Marie, BAR" French philosopher and statesman: b. Lyons, 29 Feb. 1772; d. Paris, November 1842. On the siege of Lyons in 1793 he took up arms in its defense, and greatly distinguished him self by his bravery, but was subsequently obliged to flee. He returned to France on the proclamation of an amnesty, and joined a cavalry regiment. While in garrison at Col mar he composed an essay on the theme pro posed by the French Institute, 'Quelle est !'in fluence des signes sur l'art de penser?' and gained the prize. In 1799 he took office under Lucien Bonaparte as Minister of the Interior, and became Secretary-General of that depart ment in 1804. In 1811 he was made a coun cillor of state, and in 1812 governor of Cata lonia. In 1819 he commenced a course of lectures in the Faculte de Droit, in Paris, on public and administrative law, suspended in 1822, and resumed in 1828. He was raised to
the peerage in 1837. De Gerando acquired great fame by his philosophical- writings, in which he follows with some deviations the school of Condillac. His principal works are 'Des signes et de l'art de penser consideres dans leur rapports mutuels' (1800), an enlarge ment of the dissertation formerly written for the French Institute; la generation des connaissances humaines) (1802) •, 'Histoire comparee des systemes de (1804), completed after his death ; (Du perfectionnement moral et de l'education de soi-mime,) a treatise which gained the prize of the French Acad emy in ins ; 'De l'education des sourds-mnets de naissance' (1827) ; 'Institutes du droit ad ministratif francais, ou . elements dts. code administratif reunis et mia en ordre' (1829-45) ; (De la bienfaisance pnblione) (1839).