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Definition of Grades

milk, cheeses, butter, uniform, reasonably, grade, cheese and fresh

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DEFINITION OF GRADES.- Extras shall be a standard grade of average fancy quality in the season when offered under the various classi fications. Ninety per cent shall conform to the following standard; the balance shall not grade below Firsts: Flavor: Must be sweet, fresh and dean for the season when offered if creamery, or sweet, fresh and reasonably dean if renovated or ladles. Body: Must be firm and uniform. Color: Not higher than natural grass, nor lighter than light straw, but should not be streaked or mottled. Salt: • Medium salted. Package: Sound, good, uniform and dean.

Firsts shall be a grade next below Extras and must be good butter for the season when made and offered, under the various classifica tions. Ninety per cent shall conform to the following standard; the balance shall not grade below Seconds: Flavor: Must be reasonably sweet, reason ably clean and fresh if creamery or renovated, and reasonably sweet if ladles. Body: Must be firm and fairly uniform. Color: Reasonably uniform, neither very high nor very light. Salt: May be reasonably high, light or medium. Package: Sound, good, uniform and clean.

Seconds shall be a grade next below Firsts.

Flavor: Must be reasonably good. Body: If creamery, must be solid boring. If ladles or renovated, must be 90 per cent solid boring. Color: Fairly uniform, but may be mottled. Salt:' May be high, medium or light. Package: Good and uniform.

Thirds shall be a grade below Seconds and may consist of promiscuous lots.

Flavor: May be off flavored and strong on tops and sides. Body: Not required to draw a full trier. Color: May be irregular or mottled. Salt: High, light or irregular. Package: Any kind of package mentioned at time of sale.

In grading any given lot of butter, it is scored on the basis of the following numerical values: Process or renovated butter is made from butter of very poor quality by subjecting it to certain methods of cleaning and clarifying. The butter-fat is melted and cleaned by wash ing, aerating and other processes. This clari fied butter fat has very little taste or odor and must be reconstituted to make it resemble genu ine butter. For this purpose it may be mixed with milk, skimmilk, buttermilk or cream and rechurned and worked to get the desired tex ture and flavor. In 1916 there were 23 factories operating under Federal licenses. These plants produced 27,542,015 pounds of renovated butter during the year, of which 635,038 pounds were exported.

Cheese is a product made from milk by the coagulation of the casein and the expulsion of a portion of the moisture. The finished cheese contains most of the milk-fat, the casein and a part of the milk-sugar and salts. In the process of making, a small per cent of the fat, most of the albumin and milk sugar and a small part of the mineral matter are washed out with the larger part of the original water, in the form of whey. The chief purpose of making cheese is to bring the nutri ents of the milk into a concentrated form so they will keep longer and develop the special flavors characteristic of the different types of cheeses. A great variety of cheeses are found on the markets of this country and Europe, the variety being much greater in Europe than here, although the number is increasing here. The Department of Agriculture gives a list of more than 100 kinds of cheese, with the methods of making and chemical composition of each. Cheeses may be divided into two general groups, based on the method used for coagulating the casein, these are the "acid-curd' cheeses and the "rennet-curd* cheeses. In the first group the casein is coagulated by the formation of lactic acid in the milk. This may the growth of the lactic acid bacteria normal to the milk or by the addition of a "starter)) The cheeses in this group are little more than fresh, sour curd and are eaten fresh without any ripening process. There are but few varieties. In the second group the coagulation is caused by the action of rennet, which is added to the milk while it is fresh and has but little acid. This group contains the varieties which are of greatest commercial value. At one end of this group are the so-called "hare while at the other end are the °soft' • varieties. Between these extremes there are many kinds which blend into each other by imperceptible degrees,the chief differences being due to the degree of moisture they contain and the nature of the micro-organisms causing the ripening processes. The most important of the cheeses is the one known as the American or Cheddar cheese. Its composition depends upon the quality of the milk and the method of making. Extended studies by the New York Experiment Station show the following composition for Cheddar cheese made from normal milk: The differences in composition are due chiefly to the variations in fat and casein in the milk.

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