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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 8

Deane
Deane, Silas, American Diplomatist: B. Groton, Conn., 24 Dec. 1737; D. Deal, England, 23 Aug 1789. He Was Graduated At Yale Col Lege In 1758, And Was A Member Of The First Con Tinental Congress In 1774. He Was Sent By Con Gress To France As A Political And Financial ...

Death
Death, In Common Language, A State Opposed To Life, And Considered As The Cessation Of It. Strictly Speaking, We Can Trace Only The Cessation Of Organic Life. The Matter Of Which The Body Is Composed Does Not Perish On The Death Of An Organized Being; It Undergoes Various Changes, Which ...

Death Valley
Death Valley, Cal., A Low Desert In Inyo County, Near The Nevada Border. The Name Of This Region Was Given By A Survivor Of An Emigrant Party Of 30 Who, In 1849 Or 1850, Lost Their Way Here, And Of Whom, After Endur Ing Indescribable Sufferings, 18 Perished In The ...

Debit And Credit
Debit And Credit ('soil And Haben'). Out Of The Hunger For A National Life, For A Character That Should Be Nationally German, For Traditions Upon Which To Build Them And Hopes Wherewith To Feed Them Grew Such Novels As Gustav Freytag's 'debit And Credit) (1855), Called By The Germans A ...

Debs
Debs, Eugene Victor, American Socialist: B. Terre Haute, Ind., 5 Nov. 1855. He Received A Common School Education And Became A Loco Motive Fireman. He Was Elected To The Indiana Legislature In 1884 And Was Later An Official Of The Brotherhood Of Locomotive Firemen, And, From 1893 To 1897, President ...

Debt
Debt, Action Of. This Is One Of The Old Est Procedures Known To The Common Law And In Its Origin Of A Personal Right Or Proprietary Nature. The Law Officer Was Commanded By The Writ Of Debt To Order The Defendant To Return To The Plaintiff The Sum Of Money ...

Debtor
Debtor, A Person Who Owes A Debt, Or Under Obligation, Arising From Express Agree Ment, Implication Of Law, Or From The Principles Of Natural Justice, To Render And Pay A Sum Of Money To Another. A Person Who By Reason Of An Existing Obligation Is Or Many Become Liable To ...

Debtor And Creditor
Debtor And Creditor, Laws Of. One Of The Earliest Institutions Among Men Is The Right Of Holding Individual Property. Upon This Right Depends The Power Of Making Bargains And Effecting Exchanges. In Various Ways Bar Gain-making Gives Rise To Deferred Engagements, And Obligations Are Incurred Which Are Called Debts. These ...

Debts
Debts, Public. Public Debts Are Essen Tially A Modern Phenomenon, For Before They Could Appear, Private Credit With Its Accompany Ing Mechanism Of Banks, Brokers And Credit Instruments Had To Be Developed. Certain Pre Conditions Had To Be Met Before States Could Resort Topublic Borrowing On Any Considerable Scale, And ...

Debussy
Debussy, Claude Achille, Distinguished French Composer: B. Saint-germain-en-laye, 22 Aug. 1862; D. 26 March 1918. He Was Educated At The Paris Conservatoire. From The Time He Was 12 Years Old He Attracted Attention As Possessing Remarkable Musical Ability. In 1884 He Won The Grand Prix De Rome For His Cantata ...

Decalogue
Decalogue. A Term, From The Greek, Corresponding To The Hebrew Words' (ex. Xxxiv. 28; Deut. X, 4) ; In The Septuagint 01 Diga )6yoi. In The Pentateuch It Appears In Two Versions (ex. Xx, 2-17 And Deut. V, 6-18) With Some Variants That Have Given Rise To Much Discussion And ...

Decameron
Decameron, The. In The Year 1348 The Plague, Which Had Been For Some Time Devastating The East, Appeared In "the Notable City Of Florence." A Hundred Thousand Persons Perished. Boccaccio In The First Part Of His Work, After His Immortal Description Of The Ravages Of The Pestilence, Exclaims: °alas, How ...

Decapolis
Decapolis, The. The Name Of A Greek Confederation Of Cities East Of The River Jordan. After The Conquests Of Alexander The Great Many Greeks Settled In Palestine, Many Going To The Country East Of The Jordan. The Con Federation Was Formed After The Death Of Herod In 4 A.c. Some ...

Decatur
Decatur, Stephen, American Commo Dore: B. Sinepuxent, Md., 5 Jan. 1779; D. Wash Ington, D. C., 22 March 1820. He Was The Most Conspicuous Figure In The Naval History Of The United States For The 100 Years Between Paul Jones And Farragut. He Was Well Educated At The Episcopal Academy ...

Decatur_2
Decatur, Ill., City And County-seat Of Macon County, Near The Sangamon River, And On The Wabash, The Illinois Central, The Cincin Nati, Hamilton And Dayton And The Vandalia Railroads, 173 Miles Southwest Of Chicago And 38 Miles East Of Springfield. It Was Settled In 1830 And In 1836 Was Incorporated. ...

Deceased Wifes Sister Mar
Deceased Wife's Sister Mar Riage Bill, A Bill To Legalize Marriage Be Tween A Man And The Sister Of His Deceased Wife That Was Brought Up In Almost Every Session Of The British Parliament After 1835, When Lord Lyndhurst Secured The Passing Of A Bill Which Declared All Such Marriages ...

Decembrists
Decembrists (in Russian Name Given In Russian History To The Members Of Various Secret Societies Which Were I Formed In Russia During The Reign Of Alex Ander I, Beginning In 1816, And Rising In Open Insurrection On 14 Dec. 1825. The Failure Of Alexander I To Put Into Effect His ...

Decimal Fraction
Decimal Fraction, A Fraction Whose Denominator Is A Decimal Or Power Of 10. Thus 1234 — Is A Decimal Fraction. It May Be Decom 100 Posed Into The Sum 1000 200 30 4 100 100 100 100 3 4 =10 + 2 + — 10 100 By An Obvious Extension ...

Declaration Of London
Declaration Of London. A Diplomatic Instrument Framed At An Interna Tional Conference Held In London In 1909 For The Purpose Of Settling And Defining Certain Rules Of Maritime Law In Times Of War. The Famous Declaration Of Paris (q.v.) In 1856 Enacted, Among Other Provisions, That A Neutral Flag Covered ...

Declaration Of War
Declaration Of War. A Public Proclamation In Which One Government De Clares Itself To Be At War With Another. In The United States, Congress Alone Has The Power To Declare War, And When That Body Votes For War With A Foreign Power, Such A Measure Is Con Sidered Tantamount To ...

Declension
Declension, The Change Of Termina Tion In Certain Classes Of Words, In Various Lan Guages, To Indicate The Relation In Which Those Words Stand Toward Other Words In A Sentence. The Condition Of Change To Which The Words Are Brought By The Several Terminations Are Styled Cases (lat. Cases) Or ...

Decorative Art
Decorative Art. The Generic Name For All The Arts Which Have For Their Purpose The Embellishment Or Beautifying Of Buildings Or Other Objects. Since The Decorative Arts, As Such, Make Their Appeal To The Msthetic Sense In Serving Primarily The End Of Beauty Rather Than Of Utility, Even Though Applied ...

Decorative Arts
Decorative Arts, Minor. Called In Former Days, Frequently, °minor As The Term Implies, The Decorative Arts Are Those Which Are Called Into Play In Giving An Ornamental Ap Pearance To Articles Of Utility. In The Practice Of The Decorative Arts The Essential Feature Al Ways To Be Borne In Mind ...

Decretals
Decretals, The (decretales), Signify Ing Pontifical Disciplinary Decisions, (1) The Second Part Of The Canon Law Or Corpus Ittris Canonici Which Contains In Five Books The Papal Constitutions, Laws, And Decisions From The Time Of Gratian's Decretum, 1151 To 1234, When This Second Part Was Compiled By Saint Raymond Of ...

Deduction
Deduction. Deduction Is Reasoning From A General Principle To Other Less General Truths Which Are Dependent Upon This Prin . Ciple. It Consists In Showing That The General Law Or Principle Assumed As The Starting Point Is Applicable To A Particular Subject Matter, And In Drawing The Necessary Consequences Of ...

Deed
Deed, A Written Instrument Under Seal, Containing A Contract Or Agreement Which Has Been Delivered By The Party To Be Bound And Accepted By The Obligee Or Covenantee. It Has Also Been Defined As Follows: °a Writing Cone Taming A Contract Sealed And Delivered By The Party Thereto?) (2 Wash. ...

Deep Bottom
Deep Bottom, Va., Battles At. 1. On 25 July 1864, General Grant, Then Besieging Petersburg, Ordered A Movement, The Principal Object Of Which Was To Threaten Richmond And Draw As Many Of Lee's Troops As Possible From The Lines In Front Of Petersburg, So As To Give Promise Of Success ...

Deep Sea Exploration
Deep-sea Exploration. While The Beginnings Of Our Knowledge Of The Surface Of The Sea Date Back To The Earliest Recorded Voyage Of Discovery, The Physical Conditions Obtaining In The Depths Of The Great Oceans Have Vot. 8-37 Been Ascertained Chiefly During The Past Half Century. The Modern Science Of Oceanography ...

Deep Sea Life
Deep-sea Life. In This Account Of Or ((pelagic]) Life The Writer Purposes •to Restrict Himself To The Open Ocean, That Is The Spaces Of Deep Water Covering The Real Oceanic Basins. The Great Land-masses Are Bordered By A Submerged Rim Of Varying Width, Where The Water Does Not Exceed An ...

Deerslayer
Deerslayer, The. 'the Deerslayer,' Last Of 'the Leather-stocking Tales, Which Feni More. Cooper Published In 1841, Is First In The Order Of Events Narrated In That Famous Series. The Actions Take Place On And About Otsego Lake Between 1740 And 1745. According To Cooper's Own Words,. °legend Is Purely Fic ...

Definition Of Grades
Definition Of Grades.- Extras Shall Be A Standard Grade Of Average Fancy Quality In The Season When Offered Under The Various Classi Fications. Ninety Per Cent Shall Conform To The Following Standard; The Balance Shall Not Grade Below Firsts: Flavor: Must Be Sweet, Fresh And Dean For The Season When ...

Defoe
Defoe, Daniel, English Journalist And Novelist, Author Of 'robinson Crusoe' : B. Lon Don 1659 Or 1660; D. London, 26 April 1731. He Was The Son Of James Foe, A Butcher, And Was Born In The Parish Of Saint Giles, Cripplegate. The Date Of His Birth Used To Be Given ...

Defregger
Defregger, Franz Von, Austrian Genre Painter: B. Stronach, Tyrol, 30 April 1835. The Son Of A Peasant, He Early Showed A Talent For Drawing And Wood Carving, Which He Practised Untutored While Tending His Father's Cattle. His Career Began Late, For He Lacked Instruction Till, In 18613, He Went To ...

Degeneracy
Degeneracy. In Every Community There Are Individuals Who Fail To Measure Up To The Physical Norm And More Especially To The Mental And Moral Norm Of The Race. In A Large Number Of Cases This Is Due To The Action Of An Unfavorable Environment Upon A Normal Consti Tution, But ...

Degeneration
Degeneration. In Medical Pathology Degeneration Is One Of The Processes That Occur In The Cells Of An Organ Whereby Different Grades Of Disintegration And Shrinking Take Place. It Is One Of The Retrograde Or Breaking Down Processes In Contrast To Those Of Abnormal Growth And Increase, Although In Many Of ...

Degeneration As A Factor
Degeneration As A Factor In Evolution. Degeneration Is A Term Used In Biology To Those Not Infrequent Cases Where An Entire Organism Falls Below The Structural Level Of Its Young Stages (ontogenetic Degeneration) Or Its Ancestors (phylogenetic De Generation) ; Or Where An Organ In The Same Way Loses Its ...

Degradation
Degradation, A Penalty Inflicted On Criminous Clerics In The Catholic Church. It Consists Of Two Degrees, Being Either ''verbal" Or "actual.' The Canon Law Specifies Minutely The Crimes For Which The Punishment Of Deg Radation May Be Legally Inflicted. No Juris Diction Is Vested In Bishops For Degrading, Ex Cept ...

Degree
Degree. A Title Given By A University Or College To Those Who Have Completed A More Or Less Definitely Prescribed Course El Study. While Educational Institutions Corre Sponding To Our Universities Existed In Ancient Times, And While These Undoubtedly Gave To Those Who Had Completed A Course Of Study Some ...

Degrees
Degrees, Measurement Of. After New Ton Had Taught That The Earth, On Account Of Its Motion Round Its Axis, Must Be Highest Near The Equator, And That The Diameter Of The Equator Must Be Longer, By One 230th Part, Than The Diameter Pole To Pole, The French Wished To Investigate ...

Dehmel
Dehmel, Dernel, Richard, German Lyric Poet: B. At Wendisch-hermsdorf In The Spree Wald, Of Slavic-german Descent, 18 Nov. 1863. He Was The Son Of A Forester And Got His First Impressions Of Nature Wandering In The Oak Forests Tended By His Father. After Finishing The Schools Of His Native City, ...

Del Mar
Del Mar, Alexander, American Political Economist: B. New York, 9 Aug. 1836. He Was Educated At New York University And In Europe. He Edited The Daily American Times In 1854; Hunt's Merchants' Magazine 1860; The Social Science Review In 1864; And The Fi Nancial Chronicle In 1865. In The Latter ...

Delacroix
Delacroix, Ferdinand Victor Eugene, French Painter: B. Charenton Saint-maurice, Near Paris, 26 April 1799; D. Paris, 13 Aug. 1863. His Father Was An Ardent Revolutionist Who Died When Eugene Was Seven Years Of Age. He Was Sent To The Lycie Na Poleon And Then To The Atelier Of Baron Guerin ...

Delaet
Delaet, De-lit', Johan, Dutch Scholar: Geographer And Historian: B. Antwerp About 1582; D. Leyden (?) Near The End Of 1649. Lit Tle Is Known Of His Life Except What He Himself Has Occasionally Set Down In His Own Works. In 1624 He Was Established At Leyden And For 25 Years ...

Delaroche
Delaroche, De-la-rosh', Paul (his Real Name Was Hippolyte), French Painter: B. Paris, 17 July 1797; D. There, 4 Nov. 1856. He En Tered The Studio Of Baron Gros, And Rapidly Rose To Eminence As One Of The Greatest Of Modern Painters In France. He Visited Italy In 1838 And 1843. ...

Delavigne
Delavigne, Jean Fran Cois Casimir, French Poet And Dramatist: B. Havre, 4 April 1793; D. Montmorency, 11 Dec. 1843. He Was Educated At The Lycee Napoleon, Paris, And In 1811 Composed A Dithyrambic On The Birth Of The King Of Rome, Which Attracted Considerable Attention And Procured Him, From Comte ...

Delaware
Delaware. ((the Diamond State", The Smallest But One And The Least Populous Of The 13 Original States; Southernmost Of The Middle States; 96 Miles Long By 9 To 35 Broad; 2,120 Square Miles In Area; 1,960 Square Miles Of Land. It Is Bounded On The East By The Atlantic, Ware ...

Delaware Hudson Railroad
Delaware & Hudson Railroad. The Delaware And Hudson Railroad System Is The Outcome Of A Series Of Amalgamations Of Many Small Lines Leased And Constructed From Time To Time By The Delaware And Hudson Canal Company, Which Was Chartered Under The Laws Of The State Of New York In 1823 ...

Delaware Indians
Delaware Indians (their Own Name Reno Renappi, Or Lenno Lenape, °true Men° Cf, Illinois, Inuit, Lolcono, Muysca, Atemanni, • Etc.), An Important Algonquin Tribe Which Lay In The Path Of White, Settlement On Both Sides, Of The Delaware River, And Therefore Fills-•a Large 1 Place In Colonial History. Previously They ...

Delaware River
Delaware River, A River Of The United States. Its Main Fork Takes Its Rise In A Little Lake Of Schoharie County, N. Y., On The Slopes Of The Catskill Range And At An Elevation Of Almost 2,000 Feet. This Branch Takes A South Western Course To• Deposit, About 100 Miles ...

Delft Faience
Delft Faience. To The Dutch Town Of Delft The World Is Indebted For A Style In Faience That Has Claimed The Admiration Of The World. When, At The Beginning Of The 17th Century, The Dutch East India Company Brought Such Large Quantities Of Chinese And Japanese Porcelain Ware They Created ...

Delhi
Delhi, India, City, Proclaimed The Capital Of India In 1911, Also Capital Since 1 Oct. 1912 Of A Province, Formerly A Division Of The Same Name, And Anciently Of The Patan And Mogul Empires Stands About 700 Miles Northeast Of Bombay, And About 790 Miles Northwest Of Cal Cutta. It ...

Delirium
Delirium Is A General Disturbance Of Consciousness, A Perversion Of The Intellectual And Perceptive Faculties, Characterized By A Greater Or Less Degree Of Mental Confusion, By More Or Less Transitory Delusions And Fleeting Hallucinations, Often Accompanied By Disordered, Senseless Speech And Muttering, And Motor Un Rest. It Varies In Degree ...

Delos
Delos, Delis (ancient Asnau.; Cyn. Thus; Ortygia), The Central And Smallest Island Of The Cyclades, In The Egean Sea, A Rugged Mass Of Granite About Two Square Miles In Ex, Tent. Near The Centre Of The Island Is A Rocky Hill, Mount Cynthas. 360 Feet High. Delos, According To Old ...

Delphi
Delphi, The Seat Of The Most Famous Oracle Of Ancient Greece, Was Situated In Phocis, On The Southern Side Of Parnassus. Apollo, Ac Cording To Fable, Having Killed The Serpent Python, And Determining To Build His Sanctuary Here, Perceived A Merchant Vessel From Crete Sailing By. He Immediately Leaped Into ...

Delphin Classics
Delphin Classics (auctores Classici In Taunt Serenissimi Delpluni), A Collection Of The Works Of The Latin Classic Authors, Pre Pared By Order Of Louis Xiv, At The Sugges Tion Of The Duke Of Montausier For The Use Of The Dauphin Of France. The Duke Of Montau Sier Was The Dauphin's ...

Delta
Delta, The Name Of The Fourth Letter Of The Greek Alphabet, The Capital Form Of Which Is An Equilateral Triangle. The Name Is Also Applied To A Tract Of Land Triangular In Shape, Generally Formed By The Deposit Of River Sediment, Espe Cially At The Mouths Of Rivers Which Flow ...

Deluge
Deluge (through The French, From Lat. Diluvium, Ea There Is Scarcely Any Con Siderable Race Of Men Among Whom There Does Not Exist, In Some Form, The Tradition Of A Great Deluge, Which Destroyed All The Human Race Ex Cept Their Own Progenitors. The Classical Story Of Deucalion And Pyrrha ...

Demand
Demand, A Technical Term In Law, Of Comprehensive Meaning. When Referred To Contracts It Means A Claim, A Legal Obligation, Its Correlative Is Release, And A Release Of All Demands Is A Release Of All Covenants Real And Personal, Whether The Conditions Are Broken Or Not, Of All Annuities, Recognizances, ...

Demand And Supply
Demand And Supply, Inpolitical Economy, The Desire For Services Or Utilities On The One Hand, And The Production Or Offer Of Them On The Other, Which Tend To Complete An Act Of Exchange. Demand Is Therefore The Amount Of A Commodity That Will Be Taleen At A Given Price; Supply ...

Demarcation
Demarcation, Line Of, The Boundary Established 4 May 1493 By Pope Alexander Vt Who Assigned To Spain All The Lands She Had Dis Covered Or Might Discover West Of A Line Run Ning From The North Pole To The South, Distant 100 Leagues West Of Any Of The') Azores And ...

Dementia Precox
Dementia Precox, A Term Used In Psychiatry To Designate A Disorder Group Char Acterized By Certain Types Of Mental Deteriora Tion Or Disintegration. This Term Originated With Kraepelin, Professor Of Psychiatry At Munich. Clouston Of Scotland Termed The Dis Otder The. "insanity Of Siirileseenbe,"and Zia'ler Of Zurich Has Used The ...

Demi Monde
Demi-monde, Le ("the Outer Edge Of Society)), By Alexandre Dumas The Younger, Was Written In And, After Troubles With Tbe Censorship Amusingly Recounted In A Pref Ace, Acted And Published In 1855. By ((demi Monde)) Dumas Says (preface, P. 11) He Means Not Courtesans, To Whom This Phrase Of His ...

Democracy
Democracy, History Of. Introduc Tory.— Some Preliminary Notion Of What Is Meant By Democracy Will Be Indispensable At The Outset In Order To Provide Some Logical Basis For The Organization Of A Discussion Of Its Historical Development. As A General Concept It May Be Held That Democracy Is A Form ...