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Delaware Indians

river, white, treaty, qv, iroquois, delawares and thames

DELAWARE INDIANS (their own name Reno Renappi, or Lenno Lenape, °true men° cf, Illinois, Inuit, Lolcono, Muysca, Atemanni, • etc.), an important Algonquin tribe which lay in the path of white, settlement on both sides, of the Delaware River, and therefore fills-•a large 1 place in colonial history. Previously they 'had been subjugated by the Iroquois, who,' instead of exterminating or absorbing them, enacted . tribute, called them awomen,° and • action. The early Dutch settlers were massacred• ' as usual g but the Swedes on the Delaware up, held Indian titles to lartd to secure tiler, own possession against the Dutch, compelling the' latter in turn to buy instead of seizing, so there was peace with the Delawares in 'this , period. The Swedes tried to christianize them with Luther's catechism, without much success. In October 1682, Penn made his famous treaty with them, as well and as ill kept 'by his successors as others of the kind; that the Delawares did not revenge the white encroachments by mama*, cre was due to Penn's sagcity 'in :buying 'up their overlords, the Iroquois, who threatened to destroy them if they molested uOnas')) people. The infamous trick of the ((Wallcing Purchase)) (q.v.) in 1737 (denounced by the Quakers) ousted them from half a million acres in the forks of the Delaware above Easton, and the Iroquois with furious menaces compelled them to retire to the Susquehanna. Here settlement pursued them, and not daring to resent it, a large part of them by 1750 had removed to the Alleghany and Muskingum, where they re covered Indian courage and ferocity. The Mo ravian missionaries converted part of the re mainder, and these always remained peaceful. The others, maddened by aggression, joined the French and Iroquois in the French and Indian war, and helped in Braddock's defeat; sullenly yielding in 1758, after the Senecas had turned against them, they broke out again in Pontiac's Conspiracy (q.v.) of 1762, and were among the besiegers of Detroit, Fort Pitt, Duquesne, etc. Defeated by Bouquet at Bushy Run, 1763, they made peace in 1764-65. In 1768 all the remnants east of the Alleghenies migrated west i and the Christian Delawares founded the village of Gnadenhfitten on the Muskingum. Roving bands of the others kept the field till the crushing defeat of Point Pleasant (q.v.), 1774. In the

Revolution they were divided; part went with the English, part made a treaty with Congress in 1778. The Christians remained quietly at Gna denhiitten, till in 1781 the English broke it up and removed them to Sandusky. Part of them returned thither to save their crops, and were attacked by the Americans and 90 of them mur dered; the rest fled mostly to Canada. Land was given them on the Thames, and they founded Fairfield, with others who came in 1787 from the Muskingum, where Congress had settled them. The wild tribesmen remained hostile, and con tributed to St. Clair's defeat in 1791; but Wayne's victory forced them to make peace in 1795. Successive treaties removed them from Ohio, and by 1800 the main body were on White River, Indiana. They did not join Tecumseh in the War of 1812, and in 1818 they ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi and moved to White River, Missouri. There were then 1,800 in all, a few remaining in Ohio. Later, some went south to Red River, on the Texan border, by Spanish permission. By treaty of 24 Oct. 1829 the main body, about 1,000, settled on the Kansas and Missouri. They had schools and missions. In 1853 they sold all but a reservation in Kansas, invested the moneys sagaciously, and built fair houses, improved their farms, etc. During the Civil War, out of 201 warriors they sent 170 to the Union side, who proved good sol diers and guides. In 1866 their land was cut up by the Union Pacific Railroad, and they sold the whole in 1867-68, and took up lands on the Verdigris and Cane, bought from the Chero kees. A special treaty of 1866 permitted them to take lands in severalty and become citizens; they did so, and are not a ((tribe) any longer, though they form a part of the ((Cherokee Na tion* in Oklahoma, numbering now 914. There are other bands, which in all make more than 780. The had three clans, the Turtle, Turkey and Wolf or Munsee (q.v.) ; the latter, differ ing strongly from the rest, is in three divisions, — 71 on the Thames in Canada, about 200 at Green Bay, Wis., with the Stockbridges, and some with the Chippewa in Kansas. There are also sotne on Grand River reserve in Ontario, and about 350 Moravians on the Thames. Con sult Harrington in American Anthropologist (1913) and Skinner, (Report of the Archaeologi cal Survey of New Jersey) (1913).