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DEPUTIES, Chamber of, the lower of the two legislative chambers or second house of national parliament in France, Italy and Ru mania. The first French Chamber of Deputies was established under Louis XVII in 1814. By enactments introduced in 1830 any citizen of 30 years and upward who paid direct contribu tions to the extent of 500 francs might be elected as a deputy. Originally the Chamber was •elected for five years; in 1824 it became septennial and in 1830 it was again limited to five years. In France (1917) the Chamber of Deputies is elected for four years by manhood suffrage, and each citizen 21 years old, not actually in military service, who can prove a six months' residence in any one town or com mune, and not otherwise disqualified, has the right of vote. Deputies must be citizens and not under 25 years of age. The manner of elec tion of deputies has been modified several times since 1871. The scrutin de liste, under which each elector votes for as many deputies as the entire department has to elect, was introduced in 1871. In 1876 it was replaced by the scrutin d'arrondissement, under which each department is divided into a number of arrondissements, each elector voting for one deputy only; in 1:•:5 there was a return to the scrutin de lisle, in 1889 the uninominal vote was reintroduced. In 1889 it was enacted that each candidate is bound to make, within the fortnight which precedes the elections, a declaration as to his being a candidate for a given constituency, and for one constituency only —all votes which eventually may be given for him in other constituencies being reckoned as void. In each constituency

the votes are cast up and the deputy proclaimed elected by a commission of councillors-general appointed by the prefect of the department. The Chamber in 1917 was composed of 602 deputies ; each arrondissement elects one deputy, and if its population is in excess of 100,000 it is divided into two or more constituencies. The Chamber assembles every year on the second Tuesday of January, unless a previous summons is made by the President of the Republic, and must remain in session at least five months out of the 12. Deputies are paid $3,000 a year and the President of the Chamber receives in addition $14,400 for the expense of entertain ment. Deputies travel free on all railways by means of a small annual payment.

In Italy the number of deputies is 508, elected for five years, unless the Chamber is dissolved by the king, and chosen by almost universal suffrage. Deputies must be 30 years old and must receive a number of votes greater than one-tenth of the total number of inscribed elec tors, and than half the votes given. All depu ties receive $400 annually, to cover expense for correspondence. An additional payment of $800 annually is made to those deputies who receive no income from any public funds whatsoever. All deputies travel gratis on the railroads.

In Rumania the Chamber of Deputies con sists of 183 members, elected for four years. Deputies must be 25 years of age, and receive $4 for each day of actual attendance besides free railway passes.