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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 8

Democratic Party
Democratic Party, The, One Of The Chief Political Organizations In The United States. To Thomas Jefferson Belongs The Honor Of Being The Founder, And For A Third Of A Century The Undisputed Leader, Of The Demo Cratic Party. Scarcely Had The Present Consti Tution Been Adopted Before There Appeared A ...

Democratic Societies In The
Democratic Societies In The United States, Political Associations In 1793 Organized On The Lines Of The French Jacobin (q.v.) Clubs. The Masses In This Country Sympathized With The French Revolu Tion, As Essentially The Same With Their Own, And Clamored For An Open Stand By The Govern "cent On That ...

Democritus
Democritus, Greek Philosopher Of The New Eleatic School: B. Abdera Between 470 And 460 S.c.; D. 370 Rc. Some Magi And Chal Deans, Whom Xerxes Left On His Return From His Grecian Expedition, Are Said To Have Excited In Democritus The First Inclination For Philos Ophy. After The Death Of ...

Demon
Demon (greek Daimon), A Name Given The Ancients To A Spirit Or Genius Supposed To By Hold An Intermediate Place Between Men And The Celestial Deities. In Homer We Find The Term Daimon Sometimes Applied To One Or Other Of The Gods, But It Is Commonly Used By Him In ...

Demosthenes
Demosthenes, Famous Greek Orator: B. Athens, 384 Or 385 B.c. • D. 322 B.c. His Father Left Him A Considerable Fortune, Of Which His Guardians Attempted To Defraud Him. Demosthenes, At The Age Of 17 Years, Conducted A Suit Against Them Himself, And Gained His Cause. He Studied Rhetoric Under ...

Dempster
Dempster, Thomas, Scottish Scholar: B. Cliftbog, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 23 Aug. 1579; D. Near Bologna, Italy, 6 Sept, 1625. His Autobiography, Which Contains A Curious Mixture Of Truth And Fiction, States That He Became Heir To The Title Of Baron Of Muresk, But That The Property Accruing Thereto Had Been Fraudulently ...

Denatured Alcohol
Denatured Alcohol, Alcohol That Has Been Rendered Unfit For Use As A Beverage Or As A Medicine By The Addition Of Poisonous And Offensive Substances. It Is Also Called Denaturalised And Denaturized Alcohol, And In Dustrial Alcohol. Denature Means To Change The Nature Of, And The Reason For Changing The ...

Denderah
Denderah, Clen'der-a, Egypt (the Ten Tyra Of The Greeks And Romans), A Village On The Left Bank Of The Nile; Lat. 26° 10' N.; Long. 32° 40' E.; Celebrated For Its Temple, One Of The Most Magnificent And Best Preserved Remains Of Antiquity In Egypt, Begun Under Ptolemy Xi And ...

Denmark
Denmark (danish, Danmark), Northern Kingdom Of Europe, Between Lat. 54° 40' And 57° 45' N., And Long. 8° 4' And 12° 45' E. It Is Composed Of A Peninsular Portion And An Extensive Archipelago, Lying East Of It, With A Few Scattered Islands On Its West Side; And Is Bounded ...

Denon
Denon, De-non, Dominique Vivant, Baron Di, French Artist, Diplomatist And Author: B. Chilons-sur-saone, 4 Feb. 1747; D. Paris, 27 April 1825. He Studied Law And Drawing With Halle. He Was Attached To Embassies At Petro Grad, Switzerland And Naples, Successively. At Ferney, Switzerland, He Painted The Portrait Of Voltaire And ...

Dentistry
Dentistry, Public. This Term May Properly Be Used To Denote All Phases Of Dental Service Except That Bought Of A Dentist By An Individual. It Includes Military And Naval Den Tistry As Well As That Provided By Municipalities And By Privately Endowed Institutions. It Is One Of The Most Recently ...

Dentistry
Dentistry. Dentistry May Be Defined As Being A Special Department Of The Science And Art Of Healing; Embracing A Knowledge Of The Structure, Phpiology And Patholom And The Therapeutic, Surgical And. Mechanical Treatment Of The Tissues Of The Mouth And Its Contained Organs, Also A Knowledge Of The Materials Used ...

Dentistry In Theunited
Dentistry . In The United States. From The Earliest Times Dentistry Was Practised As A Branch Of Surgery. Herod Otus Speaks Of Means Of Preserving The Teeth, And Artificial Teeth Are Alluded To By Greek And Latin Poets. In The United States The First Historic Mention Of Dental Practice Is ...

Denver
Denver, Colo., City, Capital And Com Mercial Centre Of The State, 639 Miles West Of Kansas City, 538 Miles From Omaha, 2,025 Miles From New York And 1,457 Miles From San Francisco. It Is Situated On Both Sides Of The South Platte River At Its Junction With Cherry Creek, Usually ...

Depew
Depew, Chauncey Mitchell, American Lawyer, Legislator, Politician And Orator : B. Peekskill, N. Y., 23 April 1834. He Was Gradu Ated From Yale College In 1856, Studied Law In Peekskill And In New York And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1858. He Was Soon After Elected To The New ...

Deposit
Deposit, A Term Of Wide Meaning In Law, But Especially Applied To Money Paid As An Earnest Or Security For The Performance Of A Contract; Also To Money Or Goods Belonging To One Person Entrusted To The Safe-keeping Of An Other, To Be Kept Without Fee, And To Be Re ...

Deputies
Deputies, Chamber Of, The Lower Of The Two Legislative Chambers Or Second House Of National Parliament In France, Italy And Ru Mania. The First French Chamber Of Deputies Was Established Under Louis Xvii In 1814. By Enactments Introduced In 1830 Any Citizen Of 30 Years And Upward Who Paid Direct ...

Der Arms Heinrich
Der Arms Heinrich, A Courtly Epic, Written By The Middle High German Poet Hart Mann Von Aue In The Decade Between 1190 And 1200. Its Source Is An Unknown Latin Work, Probably The Family Chronicle Of The Lords Of Aue To Whose Family Hartmann Belonged. Dif Fering From Most Of ...

Der Grune Heinrich
Der Grune Heinrich, °green Henrys (1854) Is A Psychic Autobiography Of G. Keller In The Same Sense And With The Same Limita Tions As Or Meister' Is Of Goethe. Truth Is Freely Mingled With Fiction, And There Is A Generalizing Purpose To Exhibit The Psychic Disease That Affected The Whole ...

Derbigny
Derbigny, Pierre Auguste Charles Bourisgay, American Statesman: B. France, About 1765; D. New Orleans, 6 Oct. 1829. Dur Ing The Revolution Of 1789 He Was Obliged To Flee From France To Santo Domingo And Thence To The United States, Living For A While At Pittsburgh, Pa., And Subsequently Removing To ...

Derby
Derby, Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl Of, English Statesman: B. Knowsley Park, Lancashire, 29 March 1799; D. There, 23 Oct. 1869. He Was Educated At Christ Church, Oxford, And Entered Parliament Shortly After Leaving That University As Member For Stock Bridge In Hampshire. His Very First Speech Marked Him ...

Derby Porcelain
Derby Porcelain. A Porcelain Fac Tory Was Started In This English Town In 1750 By William Duesbury Assisted By Andrew Planche, A French Refugee Potter, And With The Financial Backing Of A Derby Banker Named Heath. The Venture Was A Success, And, In 1769, Duesbury Purchased And Ran The Chelsea ...

Derne Expedition
Derne Expedition (derna Or Dern), A Military Expedition Undertaken During 1805 By William Eaton (q.v.), United States Consul To Tunis In 1799-1803, To Secure Recog Nition Of American International Rights. Eaton Became Indignant At The Abject Submission Of Christendom, Part From Fear And Part From Greed, To The Wretched Barbary ...

Derrick
Derrick, A Mechanical Device For Lifting And Shifting Heavy Weights. The Simplest Form Of Derrick Is The Gin, A Tripod Of Three Legs, With A Compound Pulley At The Apex And Another At The Hoisting Hook And A Windlass To Operate The Pulley Rope. These Simple Derricks Are Easily Portable ...

Descartes
Descartes, Rene, Re'na Da-kart', Dis Tinguished French Philosopher: B. La Haye In Touraine, 31 March 1596; D. Stockholm, 11 Feb. 1650. He Was Educated At The Jesuit College Of Le Fleche. Here He Studied Physics And Philos Ophy According To The Scholastic System And Showed Especial Fondness And Aptitude For ...

Descent In Law
Descent In Law Is The Transmission Of The Real Estate Of A Person Dying Intestate To His Heir Or Heirs. The Title Acquired By The Heir, In This Manner, Is Called Title By Descent. Prior To The Revolution, The Law In England Was That Real Estate Could Only Descend And ...

Development Of The Solar
Development Of The Solar System. Laplace's Nebular Hypothesis, Not Long After Galileo's Invention Of The Telescope In 1610, And Its Application To The Heavens By His Immediate Successors, It Was Found That The Sun And Mars Were Rotating On Their Axes, That Jupiter Had Equatorial Belts And A System Of ...

Ernest Ingersoll
Ernest Ingersoll. Animals Of The Family Cervidcr (q.v.), Which Are Noted For Their Grace Of Struc Ture And Their Fleetnesss Of Motion. Since The Earliest Times They Have Been Known As Objects Of The Chase, And Their Meat, "venison," Is Con Sidered A Delicacy. The Male Deer Is Usually Called ...

From The Commercial Revolution
From The Commercial Revolution To The Pres Ent Practice: Beard, C. A., (an Eco Nomic Interpretation Of The Constitution Of The United 'some Economic Origins Of Jeffersonian Democracy) ; Bryce, James, American Croly, H., 'pro Gressive Democracy); 'the Promise Of Ameri Can Life); De Tocqueville, A., 'democracy In Ford, H. ...

James E Creighton
James E. Creighton, Professor Of Logic And Metaphysics, Cornell University. Dee, John, English Astrologer: B. London, 13 July 1527; D. Mortlake, England 1608. In Early Life He Had Devoted Much Of His Time To Mathematical, Astronomical And Chemical Stud Ies; And In 1548 Rumors Began To Prevail That He Was ...

John Of Damascus Annes
Annes Damascenus, John Of Damascus), An Illustrious Theologian Of The Greek Church In The 8th Century, Native Of Damascus : B. About 676; D. About 755. He Was A Pupil Of Cosmas And In 730 Was Persecuted For His Active Opposition To The Iconoclast Heresy. The Last Of The Greek ...

Kronach
Kronach, Lucas, The Elder, German Painter And Engraver, Founder Of The Sax On School: B. Icronach, Ger., 1472; D. Wei Mar, 16 Oct. 1553. His Family Name Is Said To Have Been Muller, And The Name By Which He Afterward Called Himself Is Said To Have Been Taken From His ...

Lackawanna And Western Railroad
Delaware, Lackawanna And Western Railroad Company, The, Is A Consolidation Of A Number Of Short Rail Roads Originally Separate Corporations. It Was Chartered Under The Laws Of Pennsylvania In 1849 As The Ligetts Gap Railroad. This Name Was Changed In 1851 To The Lackawanna And Western Railroad. In 1853 A ...

Madame Darblay
D'arblay, (madame), Frances Burney, English Novelist, Daughter Of Charles Burney: B. King's Lynn, Norfolk, 13 June 1752; D. Bath, England, 6 Jan. 1840. When Frances Was Eight Years Old The Burneys Removed To London, Where At The Musical Assemblies Given By Her Father She Saw Much Of Fashionable Life. This ...

Mcgill Univimsity
Mcgill Univimsity. Undergraduates Shall Wear A Plain Black Stuff Gown, Not Falling Below The Knee, With Round Sleeve Cut Above Elbow. Bachelor Of Arts.— Black Stuff Gown, Falling Below Knee, With Full Sleeve Cut To Elbow And Terminating In A Point (similar To That Of The Cambridge B.a.); Hood, Black ...

Product
Product Pounds Value Butter 769,809,781 S218,021,690 Cheese 370,278,599 50,377,018 Condensed Milk 873,410.504 38,747,252 Powdered Milk 20,454,031 1,968,259 Casein 18,570,220 977 , 770 Milk Sugar 4,051,320 400,613 New York Leads All The States In The Produc Tion Of Milk For Direct Consumption. Wiscon Sin Produced The Most Butter, Followed By Minnesota, ...

Sir Cotton
Cotton, Sir Robert Bruce, English Antiquarian: B. Denton, Huntingdonshire, 22 Jan. 1571; D. London, 6 May 1631. He Was Educated At Westminster School Under The Famous Camden; And Later At Cambridge. He Settled In London, Devoting His Time To Anti Quarian Pursuits, And Employing Himself Es Pecially In Collecting Ancient ...

Sir Craddock
Craddock, Sir Christopher, British Rear-admiral: B. 1862; D. 1 Nov. 1914. He Served In The Sudan In 1881 And In China 1900. During The South African War He Acted As Transport Service Officer. Early In August 1914, After The Outbreak Of The War, Cradock Was Sent With A Small Squadron ...

Sir Davenant
Davenant, Sir William, English Poet And Dramatist: B. Oxford, February 1606; D. London, 7 April 1668. He Was Employed In Preparing Several Masques For The Entertainment Of The Court; And On The Death Of Ben Jonson In 1637, Succeeded To The Vacant Laurel. On Hostilities Breaking Out Between Charles I ...

Or Adamantine Spar Corundum
Corundum, Or Adamantine Spar, A Native Oxide Of Aluminum, A1,o., Crystallizing In The Rhombohedral System, And Also Oecurti* Massive. Its Hardness Is Nine, Audits Specific Gravity About Four. It Is Adamantine Or Vitreous In Lustre, And Very Variable In Color. ' Three Varieties Are Commonly Recognized. Of These The First ...

Or Candia Crete
Crete, Or Candia (called In The Most Ancient Times Idea, From Mount Ida, Afterward Creta, Whence The Turkish Name Kim), One Of The Most Important Islands Of The Kingdom Of Greece; Situated In The Mediterranean, 81 Miles From The Southern Extremity Of The Morea, And 230 From The African Coast; ...

Or Cortez Cortes
Cortes, Or Cortez, Her Nando, Herman, Or Fernando, Spanish Con Queror Of Mexico: B. Medellin, Estremadura, 1485; D. Castillejo De La Castra, Near Seville, 2 Dec. 1547. He Entered The University Of Salamanca, But His Penchant For The Fair Sex Soon Led To His Expulsion And The Same Cause Led ...

Or Crawfish Crayfish
Crayfish, Or Crawfish (fr. Ecre Visse, So Not Connected With "fish"), A Fresh Water Crustacean Of The Family Astacid
Or Croatoan Croatan
Croatan, Or Croatoan, The Lost Colony." (for Raleigh's Attempt To Colonize Roanoke Island, See Roanoke Colony). In 1587 He Abandoned The Effort And Incorporated A Company To Settle On Chesapeake Bay, Entitled "the Governor And Assistants Of The City Of Raleigh In Virginia." A Colony Of About 140 Persons Was ...

Or Damianus Damiani
Damiani, Or Damianus, Petrus, Saint, One Of The Fathers Of The Church: B. Ravenna 1007; D. Faenza, 23 Feb. 1072. In Infancy Be Was Abandoned By His Mother And Then Treated Inhumanly By One Of His Brothers Who Gave Him Shelter, But Another Brother, Damianus, Undertook His Guardianship And Gave ...

Or Delftshaven Delfshaven
Delfshaven, Or Delftshaven, The Former Being The Modern Form, Once The Haven Or Port Of Delft, But Now Part Of The City Of Rotterdam, On The River Maas, And The Start Ing Point Of The Voyage Of The Pilgrim Fathers To America, In 1620, And The Birth Place Of Piet ...

Or Delp Delft
Delft, Or Delp, Holland, Town In The Province South Holland, Six Miles Southeast Of The Hague And Eight Miles Northwest Of Rotter Dam. It Stands On A Dead Flat, And Is Intersected In All Directions By Canals, Which Are Crossed By 69 Bridges, Mostly Of Stone. These Canals Make The ...

Or Denhardt Denhart
Denhart, Or Denhardt, Clemens And Gustave, German Explorers: B. Zeitz 1852 And 1856, Respectively. They Made A Tour In 1878, Through The Tana River Region, East Africa, To Establish German Trade, And Another From The Island Of Lamu To Vitu In March 1885, The Sultan Of The Swahili Desiring A ...

Or Dmitri Demetrius
Demetrius, Or Dmitri, A Series Of Impostors Who Usurped Supreme .authority In Russia, And Led To Some Of Its Remarkable Revo Lutions. Ivan Wasiliewitch, Who Had Put His Eldest Son To Death, Left The Throne In 1584 To Another Son, Feodor, Whom Boris Godunov En Tirely Supplanted In His Authority. ...

Or Kreatine Creative
Creative, Or Kreatine, A Crystalline, Nitrogenous Substance Having The Formula C.h.n80.-f H2o, And Known To Chem Ists As "methyl Guanido Acetic Acid.° It Exists In The Muscular Flesh Of Mammals, Birds, Rep Tiles And Fishes, And Also, In Smaller Quantities, In Brain-tissue And In Urine. It May Be Ex Tracted ...

Or Kurland Courland
Courland, Or Kurland, Russia, A Province On The Baltic, Bounded North By Livo Nia And The Gulf Of Riga, West By The Baltic, South By Kovno And East By Vitebsk; Area, 10,535 Square Miles. In The Neighborhood Of Mitau, The Capital, The Surface Is Diversified By Hills Of Very Moderate ...