JAMES E. CREIGHTON, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Cornell University.
DEE, John, English astrologer: b. London, 13 July 1527; d. Mortlake, England 1608. In early life he had devoted much of his time to mathematical, astronomical and chemical stud ies; and in 1548 rumors began to prevail that he was addicted to the black art. They were prob ably well founded; and to avoid the conse quences he went abroad. In 1551 he returned to England and through the instrumentality of Cecil, who presented him to Edward VI, ob tained a pension of 100 crowns. The suspicion of the black art appears still to have clung to him, and shortly after Queen Mary's accession he was charged with practising against the queen's life by enchantment and imprisoned. He obtained his liberty in 1555 and after Queen Elizabeth's accession was consulted by Lord Dudley as to °a propitious for the coro nation. Lilly's account of him is that he was the queen's intelligencer, with a fixed salary; a great investigator of the more secret her metical learning, a perfect astronomer, a curi ous astrologer, a serious geometrician and ex cellent in all kinds of learning. The nature of his employments excited strong suspicion and in 1576 he was furiously attacked by a mob, from which he had difficulty in escaping with his life. In 1578 during an illness of the queen, he was sent to consult with the German physi cians and philosophers as to her recovery and after his return was employed to draw up a sketch of the countries which, from having been discovered by English subjects, belonged to the crown. He accordingly prepared two rolls, giv
ing both a geographical description and a his torical acccount of the countries. These curi ous documents are still extant in the British Museum. After many wanderings, Dee, re turning home, obtained from the queen in 1594 the chancellorship of Saint Paul's Cathe dral and in 1595, the wardenship of Manchester College, which he held nine years. It has been supposed, with some plausibility, that Dee's character as an alchemist was merely assumed to enable him to act more securely and effectu ally as a spy in the employment of the English government. His writings on the occult sciences were published in 1659.
DEE, the name of several British rivers. 1. A river in Scotland, partly in Kincardineshire, but chiefly in Aberdeenshire, one of the best salmon rivers in Great Britain. It rises on the southwest border of Aberdeenshire in the Cairngorm Mountains and flows generally east, 87 miles to the North Sea. Its total course is 96 miles. The city of Aberdeen is at its mouth. 2. A river of North Wales and Chesh ire; rises in Lake Bala, Merionethshire; flows north-northeast and northwest to the Irish Sea, 20 miles below Chester; length, about 70 miles. 3. A river of Scotland, county of Kirkcudbright, rises in Loch Dee. It flows southeast and south into Kirkcudbright Bay; length, 50 miles.