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milk, cent, fat, dairy, solids, casein, solution, oxide, cow and follows

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PRODUCT Pounds Value Butter 769,809,781 S218,021,690 Cheese 370,278,599 50,377,018 Condensed milk 873,410.504 38,747,252 Powdered milk 20,454,031 1,968,259 Casein 18,570,220 977 , 770 Milk sugar 4,051,320 400,613 New York leads all the States in the produc tion of milk for direct consumption. Wiscon sin produced the most butter, followed by Minnesota, Iowa and California. In the pro duction of cheese, Wisconsin leads, followed by New York, Pennsylvania and Michigan. For condensed milk, the leading States are Wis consin, Illinois and New York.

For many years the dairy industry has in creased steadily and quite rapidly. This growth is the more significant in view of the fact that, during recent years, there has been a decided decrease in the raising of cattle for beef. This general tendency toward an increase in the raising of dairy cattle at the expense of other kinds is, doubtless, due to certain fundamental economic principles: (1) A given amount of feed consumed by a dairy cow will produce a much greater amount of human food (milk, butter or cheese) than would be produced if it were used for the production of beef, mutton or pork; (2) the sale of milk, butter or cheese removes very little fertility from the farm, and the cow provides a means for converting certain farm products, such as hay, corn, stover, straw, etc., into more salable products; (3) it is easier to maintain the fertility of the soil where stable manure is available than where it is not; (4) labor on a dairy farm is more constant throughout the year than in most other lines of farming. This makes it possible for. the dairyman to use both man and team labor eco nomically, and provide a nearly uniform income throughout the year, instead of having it con centrated into a few months, as in grain or fruit-growing. It is significant that the dairy industry has reached its greatest development in those sections of the country which have been farmed longest and where the types of farming have become most permanent and also that there is a marked tendency toward greater de velopment of this industry in the newer sections. This may be interpreted as meaning that the dairy cow grows in importance with the increase of population, need for human food and the development of a permanent type of farming. During recent years, the number of dairy cows has increased in all sections except the New England and Middle Atlantic States, where the industry was already well developed. The mar ket for our dairy products is chiefly domestic, a very small percentage going into export trade.

Milk is produced by the females of all species of mammals as food for their young. In nature the mother produces only the amount of milk needed to feed her young, but, in the case of the cow, the function of milk secretion has been developed by means of artificial breed ing and selection far beyond the needs of the young calf in order that it may be available for human food. In appearance cow's milk is a yellowish white, slightly viscous, opaque fluid, having a pleasant, sweetish taste. Milk is a true secretion, the fat, casein, lactose, etc., being made by the activity of the cells in the mammary gland.

The analysis of several thousand samples of cow's milk shows the average composition to be as follows: water, 87.17 per cent; milk-fat, 3.69 per cent; casein, 3.02 per cent; albumin, 0.53 per cent; milk-sugar, 4.88 per cent; and ash, 0.71 per cent.

The constituents of milk, less the water, are usually called the milk solids or total solids, and the total solids without the fat, the solids not-fat. The entire milk, less the fat, is called the milk serum, or skim-milk.

Some of the constituents of milk are in true solution; some are simply held in suspension, while others are partly in solution and partly in suspension. Van Slyke states this. condition as follows: Milk constituents partly in solution Milk constibients Milk constituents and partly in sus- entirely in sus in true solution pension or colloidal pension or col in milk serum solution tidal solution a) Sugar acid (a) Albumin (1) (a) Fat ) Citric acid (b) Inorganic phos- (b) Casein c) Potassium phates d) Sodium (c) Calcium e) Chlorina (d) Magnesium The constituents of milk vary considerably in percentage, being influenced by the breed, period of lactation, individuality and certain other minor conditions. The greatest variation occurs in the per cent of fat. The influence of breed upon this constituent and the total solids as compiled by Wing from a large number of analyses by American experiment stations is as follows: Solids Pat Jersey 14.70 5.35 Guernsey 14.71 5.16Devon 14.50 4.60 Shorthorn 13.38 4.03 Ayrshire 12.61 3.66 HolsteimPriesian ? 11.85 3.42 The per cent of fat normally increases with the advance of the lactation period. This is shown by the following monthly averages for nearly 100 lactation periods (Van Slykc): Milk-fat or butter-fat, as it is sometimes called, is not a single chemical substance, but is made up of a number of fatty acids or glycerides. Browne gives the composition of milk-fat as follows, with the percentage of each of the fatty acids: Per cent , of to Ferry Acm fat Oleic 33.95 Palmitic 40.51 Myristic 10.44 Stearic 1.91 Dioxystearic 1.04 Butyric 6.23 Laurie 2.73 Caproic 2.32 Caprylic 0.53 Capnc 0.34• Babcock gives the following substances as constituting the proteids of milk: Casein, 3.0 per cent; albumin, 0.6 per cent; lactoglobulin, galactin and fibrin (trace), 02 per cent ; a total of 3.8 per cent. Likewise the mineral matter or ash is made up of many distinct substances as shown by Babcock: Potassium oxide { 0.17S Sodium oxide 0.070 Calcium oxide 0.140 0.7 per Magnesium oxide 0.017 • Iron oxide 0.001 Sulphur trioxide 0.027 Phosphoric pentoxide 0.170 Chlorine 0.100 Colostrum is the milk which a cow produces immediately after parturition. It is quite differ ent in appearance and composition from normal milk, having a reddish yellow color and a vis cous, almost slimy, consistency. Richmond gives its composition as follows: Water, 71.69; fat, 3.37; albuminoids: casein, 4.83, albumen, 15.85; sugar, 2.48; and ash, 1.78 per cent. Colostrum acts as a purgative to the newly-born calf, and should not be used for human food under four or five days after calving, by which time it becomes normal milk.

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