DOMINICANS, or FRIARS PREACH ERS, or PREACHING FRIARS (Fratres Pradicantes), the religious order founded by Saint Dominic. While laboring in Provence for the conversion of the Albigenses, Dominic associated to himself 16 disciples eager, like himself, to devote their lives to the work of reclaiming heretics and ministering to the spiritual needs of the poor and ignorant. In 1215 he visited Rome to obtain from the Holy See approval of the insti tute he proposed to form. Of the 16, 8 were French, 6 Spanish, 1 Portuguese and 1 English. The Pope (Innocent III), in conformity with the decree of the Fourth Lateran Council, then in session, against approval of new religious orders, refused again and again his consent, but at last promised to give his approbation on the condition that the friars should adopt as their own the monastic rule of the Augustinians. The condition having been. fulfilled, the order was formally approved in 1216 by Innocent's successor, Honorius III. The order took definite shape in two general chapters at Bologna in 1220 and 1221. The costume of the friars was to resemble that of the Augustinians, and to consist chiefly of a black cassock and rocket; but a few years afterward this was changed for the white habit and scapulary with outside black mantle, which is still the costume of the Dominicans. Their name Black Friars was given them because of the black mantle worn out of doors. The memory of their great monastery in London is preserved in the name Blackfriars Bridge. Houses of the new order were immediately founded in France, the Rhine land and Italy; and in 1221 was held the first general chapter of the order at Bologna in which were represented 60 convents of preach ing friars. That same year arrived in England the first band of Dominicans, 12 of the brothers in charge of Gilbert de Fremey. At this chap ter an addition was made to the rule of the order, by which the Dominicans were forbid den to hold any possessions or have any fixed incomes, but to live by the voluntary alms of the people; thus the Friars Preachers became mendicant friars like the Franciscans. All the
universities were opened to the young scholastics of the order, and soon many preach ing friars attained the foremost rank as philoso phers, divines, canonists and scholars, although in later times the Jesuits largely displaced them as preachers and teachers. The master-general of the order is elected for 12 years, and is resi dent in Rome; and there are 52 provincials, elected for four years each. Their manner of life is one of great austerity. They took a conspicuous part in the Inquisition, the office of inquisitor in all countries being generally held by them. Among divines and philosophers the Dominicans Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas and Raymond of Penaforte, the third general of the order, hold the highest places; the celebrated German mystics and divines, Meister Eckhart, John Tauter and Henry Suso, were Dominicans, as was also the martyr Savonarola. The great mediaeval encyclopaedic work, Speculum Majus, was the work of a Dominican, Vincent of Beauvais. The highest places in the Church have been occupied by Dominicans; since the order was founded there have been 4 Domin icans popes, 60 cardinals, over 150 archbishops and more than 800 bishops. A second and a third order were also founded by Saint Dominic; the second order being for •women, and the third for men and women living in the world, engaged in secular pursuits and married. Saint Catherine of Siena and Saint Rose of Lima, d. 1617 (the first American saint), be longed to the order. (See TERTIARIES). The Dominican houses suppressed in England by Henry VIII numbered 58. Consult Drane, 'History of Saint Dominic, Founder of the Friars Preachers) (London 1891) ; D'Anzas, 'Etudes sur l'Ordre de Saint Dominique) (3 vols., Poitiers 1874-75) ; Jessop, The Corn ing of the Friars) (London 1888) ; Proctor (ed.), 'Short Lives of the Dominican Saints) (New York 1901).