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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Bleaching
Bleaching. The Art Of Freeing Cloths And Various Other Substances From Their Natural Brown Or Dusky Tinge, And Rendering Them Perfectly White. The Most Ancient, And At One Time The Only Known, Method Of Bleaching Linen, Or Cotton Cloths, Consists In Frequently Wetting Them, And Exposing Them Upon The Grass ...

Blinds
Blinds. Screens Composed Of Various Materials, And Fixed In Window Frames, Either To Exclude A Too Strong Light, Or To Screen The Interior Of An Apartment From The Observation Of Persons On The Outside, Without Obstructing The View Of Those Within. The Contrivances For These Purposes Are Numerous, And So ...

Block Machinery
Block Machinery. The Machinery At The Royal Dock-yard, At Portsmouth, Invented By Mr. Brunel, For Manufacturing Blocks, Is Deservedly Celebrated. The Following Is A Concise Account Of It. The Machines Are Sepa Rated Into Four Classes. 1. The Sawing Machine, For Converting The Large Timber Into Proper Dimensions For The ...

Blocks
Blocks, In The Navy, And Marine Architecture, A Species Of Pulley Very Extensively Used For Moving Heavy Weights, By Means Of Ropes Or Chains Passing Over The Pulleys; Also Occasionally In Architectural And Other Works. A Block Consists Of One Or More Pulleys, Called Sheaves, Which Are Generally Formed Of ...

Blow Pipe
Blow Pipe. An Instrument For Exciting Intense Combustion Upon A Small Scale; It Is Extensively Used In Many Branches Of The Arts, And Also In Philoso Phical Experiments Upon Metallic Substances. In Its Simplest Form It Is Merely A Conical Brass Tube, Curved At The Small End, In Which Is ...

Blowing Machines
Blowing Machines. Machines Employed For Producing A Rapid Com Bustion Of Fuel, By Furnishing A More Copious Supply Of Our Than Can Be Obtained By The Mere Draft Of The Ordinary Chimneys. Although The Common Bellows Is Undoubtedly A Blowing Machine, Yet The Term Is Generally Restricted In Its Appli ...

Blubber
Blubber, In Physiology And Commerce, The Fat Which Invests The Bodies Of All Large Cetaceous Fishes, Serving To Furnish An Oil. The Blubber Lies Imme Diately Under The Skin, And Over The Muscular Flesh. In The Porpoise It Is Firm And Full Of Fibres, And Invests The Body About An ...

Boat
Boat. A Small Vessel For The Conveyance Of Goods Or Passengers To Short Distances, And Which May Be Impelled Either By Oars Or Sails At Pleasure. They Are For The Most Part Open Or Without Decks; But The Varieties In Their Form And Construction, According To The Purposes For Which ...

Boiler
Boiler, In Its Most Extended Sense, Implies Any Vessel Employed For Pro Ducing The Ebullition Of Liquids; Thus The Ordinary Domestic Pots And Kettles, Brewing And Washing Coppers, As Well As All Kinds Of Vessels Used For Heating Liquids In Various Manufacturing Operations, Come Under This Denomination. Our Business In ...

Bolting Machine
Bolting Machine. A Part Of The Machinery Of A Flour Mill, By Which The Flour Is Separated From The Meal, Which Operation Is Termed Dressing The Flour. It Usually Consists Of An Hexagonal Reel, Over Which Is Drawn A Sack, Called The Bolting Cloth, Of Considerably Larger Diameter Than The ...

Bones
Bones. The Hard Insensible Substance Of Which The Frame Or Skeleton Of Animal Bodies Is Formed. Although The Proportion Of The Ingredients Vary In The Bones Of Different Animals, As Also In Different Parts Of The Same Animal, The General Constituents Of Bones Are As Follows : Gelatin Or Jelly, ...

Bookbinding
Bookbinding Is The Art Of Securing Together A Number Of Separate Leaves Into One Book, And Is Of Very Great Antiquity, The Invention Being Generally Attributed To One Of The Kings Of Pergamus, To Whom We Are Also Said To Be Indebted For The Invention Of Parchment. Bookbinding, Properly So ...

Boring Bit
Boring Bit. A Tool Or Instrument Used For Making Aper Urea In Wood, Metal, Or Other Hard Substances. They Are Of Various Shapes, Too Common To Workmen To Need Description ; But One Of A Very Peculiar And Effective Kind, Represented Above, Was Brought From Germany By Mr.donkin, And Is ...

Boring The Earth For
Boring The Earth For Water. An Economical Process Has Been Practised Of Late Years For Obtaining Water From Great Depths, Without The Expense Of Sinking A Well. This Process Consists Simply In Boring The Earth With An Auger And Other Proper Instruments, To A Considerable Depth; And In Most Situations ...

Bottle
Bottle. A Vessel With A Narrow Mouth Or Aperture, Used To Contain Liquids; And Usually Composed Of Glass Or Earthen Ware. Under These Two Heads Will Be Found A Description Of The Process Of Manufacturing Them ; We Shall, Therefore, In This Place, Briefly Notice Some Inventions Connected With Them, ...

Brazil Wood
Brazil Wood. A Red-coloured Wood, Chiefly Used In The Process Of Dyeing. The Tree That Afford, It Is The Growth Of The Brazils, In South America. The Wood Is Capable Of A Good Polish, And Is So Hard That It Sinks In Water Its Colour Is Pale When Newly Cut, ...

Bread
Bread. Various Preparations Of Farinaceous Substances Bear This Denomi Nation; But Those Which Are Chiefly Used In This Country May Be Distinguished Into Three Principal Kinds. In The First, Called Unleavened Bread, Either Flour And Water Alone Are Mixed, Or With The Addition Of Some Other Substance, Such As Butter, ...

Breakwater
Breakwater. An Artificial Wall Or Rampart Carried Nearly Across The Mouth Of An Open Harbour Or Hay, To Protect Vessels Moored Behind It From The Violence Of The Sea. The Two Most Celebrated Structures Of This Kind Are Those Of Cherbourg And Plymouth. The Breakwater At Cherbourg Was Commenced About ...

Brewing
Brewing. The Art Of Preparing Ale Or Beer. The Materials Commonly Used For This Purpose Are Malted Barley And Hops. The Ingredients Serve As The Basis Of All Ale And Beer, And, Indeed, Are The Only Ones Permitted By Law ; But Most Public Brewers, In Addition, Make Use Of ...

Brick
Brick. A Kind Of Factitious Stone, Made Of A Fatty Earth Formed Into A Parallelogram About 4 Inches Broad By 8 Or 9 Inches In Length, By A Wooden Mould, And Then Baked Or Burnt Either In A Kiln Or A Clamp, To Serve The Purposes Of Building. Bricks Appear ...

Bridge
Bridge. A Structure With One Or More Transverse Apertures, Raised For The Convenience Of Passing A River, Canal, Valley, &c., And Formed Of Various Materials, As Timber, Stone, Iron, &c. It Is Highly Probable That The First Bridges Were Composed Of Lintels Of Wood Stretching From Bank To Bank, Or, ...

Building
Building Is The Art Of Constructing Edifices, The Decorative Part Of Which Has Received The More Imposing Name Of Architecture. As The Main Design Of This Work Is, However, To Furnish The Most Extended Accounts Within Its Limits Of The Mechanism And Manufacturing Processes Of The Empire, We Shall Confine ...

Buoy
Buoy. A Floating Mark To Point Out The Position Of Objects Beneath The Water, As Shoals, Anchors, &c. ; Also Any Light Body Used To Support In The Water Another Body, Whose Specific Gravity Exceeds That Of Water, As The Buoys Used To Support The Swivel Rings Of Mooring Chains, ...

Burning Glass
Burning Glass And Burning Mirror. Instruments For Concentrating Upon A Very Small Surface The Rays Of The Sun, Which Fall Upon A Much More Extended One, By Which Means Such An Intense Heat May Be Produced As To Fuse, Burn, Or Volatilize Most Substances. Burning Glasses Are Convex Lenses, Which, ...

Button
Button. A Fastening For Various Parts Of Dress. Buttons May Be Divided Into Two General Classes,—those With Shanks, Or Loops Of Metal, For The Purpose Of Attaching Them To Garments, And Those Without Shanks; And Each Class Is Manufactured From A Great Variety Of Materials, And By A Variety Of ...

Cable
Cable. A Rope Of Large Diameter, By Whieh Ships Are Held To Their Anchors Or Moorings. The Materials Of Which Cables Are Formed Are Very Various, As Bass, Hemp, Sunn, And Coir, Or The Husk Of The Cocoa Nut, And Latterly Iron Chains, Of A Particular Construction, Have Been Extensively ...

Caisson
Caisson. A Kind Of Chest-framed Or Flat-bottomed Boat, Sometimes Used In Laying The Piers Of Bridges In Deep Or Rapid Rivers. The Caissons For This Purpose Consist Of A Very Strong Platform Of Timber, To Which Are Attached The Two Sides, In Such A Manner As To Admit Of Their ...

Calculating Machines
Calculating Machines. Machines Devised For Facilitating Arith Metical Computations. From A Remote Period Of Antiquity, Various Mechanical Devices Were Resorted To For This Purpose. Amongst The Greeks And Romans, An Instrument Called " Abacus' Was Employed, Consisting Of A Number Of Parallel Threads, Upon Which Were Strung A Number Of ...

Calendering
Calendering. The Operation By Which All Accidental Wrinkles And Creases Are Removed From Various Kinds Of Cloths, And Their Surfaces Rendered Smooth And Uniform Previous To Packing For Transport: Calicoes Are Likewise Calendered Before Printing. The Common Calendering Machine Nearly Resembles The Ordinary Mangle, But Worked By A Horse-wheel, On ...

Calico Printing
Calico Printing. The Art Of Producing Upon Calico Or Cotton Cloths Patterns Or Designs Combining A Variety Of Colours, So As To Produce An Agreeable And Pleasing Effect. This Ingenious Business, As At Present Conducted, May Be Considered As One Branch Of The Art Of Dyeing ; And As It ...

Canal
Canal. An Artificial Cut In The Ground, Supplied With Water From Rivers Or Springs, &c. In Order To Form A Navigable Communication Between One Place And Another, And Also For Supplying Towns With Water. The Advantages To Be Derived From Canals Were Not Unknown To The Ancients. Egypt, From The ...

Candle
Candle. A Cylindrical Mass Of Tallow, Or Other Concrete Oleaginous Matter, Having In Its Axis A Cotton Or Other Wick, And Employed To Afford Artificial Light. Next To Tallow, The Substances Most Extensively Used Are Wax And Spermaceti. Some Valuable Substitutes For These Have Recently Been Dis Covered And Introduced ...

Cannon
Cannon. In Military Affairs, A Long Cylindrical Tube For Throwing Projec Tiles By The Explosion Of Gunpowder, Of Such Dimensions As To Require To Be Supported Upon A Carriage, With Liberty To Recoil After Firing; In Which Circum Stance It Differs From Fire-arms Of The Smaller Sort, As Pistols, Carabines, ...

Caoutchouc
Caoutchouc. A Soft, Dense, Elastic, Resinous Substance, Usually Called India Rubber, But Sometimes Very Improperly Elastic Gum. It Is Obtained From The Milky Juice Of Several Plants, The Chief Of Which Are The Jatropha Elastics, And Urceola Elastics. The Juice, Which Is Obtained By Incision, Is Received In Successive Coatings ...

Capstan
Capstan. A Machine Employed In Large Vessels, Principally For "heaving Up Or Weighing" The Anchor. It Consists Of A Drum Or Barrel, Revolving Upon An Upright Spindle, And Having Holes Cut In The Upper Part Or Drum Head, To Receive The Ends Of A Series Of Horizontal Levers, Named Capstan ...

Cards
Cards. In The Manufactures Of Cotton And Wool, An Instrument Used For Preparing Those Substances For Being Spun Into Thread, By Strengthening The Fibres, And Rendering Them Parallel To Each Other. They Are A Species Of Brush, Composed Of Wires Stuck Through Strips Of Leather, And Not Standing Erect, But ...

Carpentry
Carpentry Is The Art Of Cutting Out, Framing, And Joining Large Pieces Of Wood To Be Used, In Building. The Only Difference Between Carpentry And Joinery Is, That Whilst The Former Includes The Larger And Rougher Description Of Work, Which Is Essential To The Construction And Stability Of An Edifice, ...

Carpet
Carpet Is A Sort Of Stuff Wrought With The Needle, Or On A Loom, And Forms The Ordinary Furniture Of A House, Being Commonly Laid Upon The Floor. The Persian And Turkey Carpets Have Hitherto Been In The Greatest Esteem, But Some Of The Manufacturers Of France And Great Britain ...

Carriage
Carriage. A Vehicle For The Transport Of Persons And Goods By Land. Although The Varieties Of Carriages Are Very Great, Yet They May Be Ranged Under Two Heads, Viz. Sledges, Or Carriages Without Wheels, And Wheeled Carriages. The Earliest Carriages Were Doubtless Of The First Class, Or Without Wheels ; ...

Cartridge
Cartridge. A Case Containing A Charge Of Powder For Fire-arms. For Pistols And Muskets The Case Is Made Of Strong Paper Manufactured For The Pur Pose, And Called Therefore Cartridge-paper, And The Cartridges Are Called Ball Or Blank Cartridges, Accordingly As They Contain Or Not A Ball Or Bullet, With ...

Carving
Carving, In A General Sense, Is The Art Of Cutting Or Fashioning A Hard Body By Means Of Some Sharp Instrument; But In A More Particular Sense It Is Usually Understood To Be The Art Of Cutting Figures And Designs In Wood. A Carver Should Possess Some Knowledge Of Drawing ...

Casting And Moulding
Casting And Moulding. Under This Head We Shall Give The Art Of Taking Impressions From Sculptures, Medals, And Other Delicate Works Of Art ; Also The Taking Of Casts From The Face, And Other Natural Objects. For The Process Of Casting Articles Of Metal In The Large Way, See Foundry. ...

Cements
Cements, In General, Are Substances Employed To Unite Bodies In Close Adhesion, For Which Purpose They Are Applied In A Semi-fluid Or Pasty State, So As To Be Brought Into Intimate Contact With The Opposite Surfaces, And Becoming Solid As The Moisture Exhales, The Whole Form, As It Were, One ...

Central Forces
Central Forces. The Two Antagonist Forces By Which Bodies Are Caused To Revolve Round A Central Point. As All Forces Act In Right Lines, The Tendency Of Any Body Moving In A Circle Is To Fly Off In A Right Line Forming A Tangent To The Circle, And This Tendency ...

Centre Of Percussion
Centre Of Percussion. That Point In A Body Revolving About A Fixed Axis Into Which The Whole Force Or Motion Is Collected; It Is, Therefore, That Point Of A Revolving Body Which Would Strike An Obstacle With The Greatest Effect, And From This Property It Has Received The Name Of ...

Cheese
Cheese. An Article Of Food Obtained By Mixing An Acid With Milk, Which Causes It To Coagulate And Form A Curd ; The Curd Is Then Subjected To The Action Of A Powerful Press To Separate It From The Whey, After Which It Is Set Upon Racks To Dry. The ...

Chemistry
Chemistry Is The Science Which Teaches The Composition, Properties, And Uses, Of All Material Bodies. It Is The Business Of Mineralogy To Investigate The Properties And Uses Of Inorganic Substances As They Naturally Occur, But It Is The Office Of Chemistry To Reduce, Not Only Them, But All Organic Bodies, ...

Chimney
Chimney. An Aperture Or Passage For The Escape Of The Smoke And Heated Air From A Furnace Or Fire-place, And For Producing A More Perfect Com Bustion By Determining A Rapid Current Of Air Through The Fuel. The Principle Upon Which The Action Of A Chimney Depends, Is, That The ...

Churn
Churn. A Vessel In Which Butter Is Obtained From Milk Or Cream By Agitation. A Great Variety Of Churns Are In Use ' • A Very Common One Consists Of A Deep Wooden Tub, Rather Conical, Resting On Its Base, And Having A Wooden Cover, Through Which Passes The Churn ...

Clog
Clog. A Sort Of Shoe With A Thick Sole Of Wood Or Leather, Worn Over The Ordinary Boots And Shoes In Dirty Weather. Although Clogs Are More Easy To Walk In Than Patters, As Affording A Firmer Footing, They Are Not So Cleanly, As They Splash And Throw Up A ...

Coal Mine
Coal Mine. Strata Of Coal Are To Be Met With In Various Parts Of The Globe, As France, Germany, Sweden, America, Australia, And We Believe Likewise In India ; But In No Country In Such Profusion, Or Of So Good A Quality, As In Great Britain; And To This Circumstance ...

Cock
Cock. An Instrument For Permitting Or Arresting The Flow Of A Liquid At Pleasure. They Generally Consist Of A Short Tube Commtmicating With The Cask Containing The Liquid, And Having A Plug Ground Into It Near The Middle, And Standing At Right Angles To It This Plug Bag A Hole ...

Coffee
Coffee Is The Seed Contained In A Berry, The Produce Of A Moderate Sized Tree Called The Coffee Arabictitn, And, Which Has Also Been Named Janninum Ara Bicum. This Tree Grows Erect, With A Single Stem, To The Height Of From Eight To Twelve Feet, And Has Long, Undivided, Slender ...

Comb Making
Comb Making. The Process Of Comb Making Is Usually Conducted As Follows. The Material Of Which The Comb Is Formed Is First Reduced To Thin Smooth Plates Of An Even Thickness. The Workman Who Cuts The Teeth Then Fastens One Of These Plates In A Clamp Or Vice, And Proceeds ...

Combustion
Combustion. The Disengagement Of Heat And Light Which Accompanies Chemical Combination. Combustion Was For A Long Time Held To Be The Dis Engagement Or Development Of A Certain Air Supposed To Be Contained In All Combustible Bodies, And To Which The Name Of Phlogiston Was Assigned ; And Bodies Which ...

Compass
Compass. A Nautical Instrument, Showing The Direction In Which A Vessel Is Sailing, Or The Part Of The Horizon To Which Her Head Is Directed. It Consists Of A Flat Bar Of Steel, Which Being Repeatedly Rubbed With A Magnet Or Loaclstone Acquires The Property Of Constantly Taking A Direction ...

Composition Of Forces
Composition Of Forces Is The Finding A Single Force Which Shall Be Equal To Two Or More Given Forces When Acting In Given Directions, The Principles Of Which May Be Thus Illustrated. If Two Forces, Moving In The Direction Of The Two Adjacent Sides Of A Parallelogram With Velocities Proportional ...

Condenser
Condenser. A Vessel In Which Aqueous Or Spirituous Vapours Are Reduced To A Liquid Form, Either By Injection Of A Quantity Of Cold Water, As In The Condenser Of A Steam-engine; Or When This Is Inadmissible, As In The Case Of Alcoholic Vapour, By Placing The Condenser In Another Vessel, ...

Coopering
Coopering Is The Art Of Manufacturing Casks, Barrels, Vats, And All Kinds Of Circular Or Elliptic Wooden Vessels, That Are Bound Together By Hoops. There Are Several Classes Of Coopers, Some Of Whom Carry On Their Peculiar Branches Distinctly, While Others Embrace The General Manufacture In One Establishment. The Workmen, ...

Copal
Copal. A Hard, Shining, Transparent Concrete Juice, Obtained From An American Tree ; But Which, Although It Is Commonly Considered A Gum, Has Neither The Solubility In Water Common To Gums, Nor The Solubility In Alcohol Common To Resins, Except In A Very Slight Degree. It May Be Dissolved By ...

Copper
Copper Is A Metal Of A Reddish Brown Colour, Hard, Very Malleable, Ductile, And Sonorous; Of Considerable Tenacity, And Of A Specific Gravity From 8.6 To 8.9. The Good Quality Of Copper Is Shown By Its Capability Of Alloying Silver Without Any Diminution Of Its Extensibility Under The Hammer Or ...