CLOG. A sort of shoe with a thick sole of wood or leather, worn over the ordinary boots and shoes in dirty weather. Although clogs are more easy to walk in than patters, as affording a firmer footing, they are not so cleanly, as they splash and throw up a deal of dirt. The figures on the opposite page represent a combination of the clog and the patten, affording the security and firmness of the tread of the former, and the cleanliness of the latter. dig. 1 shows the patten clog in perspective, and Mg. 2 the same turned upside down. a is the patten iron, of the peculiar form represented, which is found not to splash in the least; it is rivetted to the bottom of the clog, as a support to the heel, and is upon a level with the projecting or thickest parts b of the sole that supports the fore part of the foot. The is hollowed out at c to render it lighter, and to cause it to take up less dirt. One objection to clogs, as usually constructed, is the fatigue they occasion in walking, from their want of flexibility. This defect has of late years been remedied by forming the sole of two or more pieces, con nected by hinges; and a further improvement has been introduced by Mr.Schaller, who has obtained a patent for what he terms "expanding clogs or pattens," which may be lengthened or contracted at pleasure, so as to fit the foot of the wearer with the greatest exactness. These expandinf clogs are represented in the engravings on page 372. rig. 1 represents a man s clog in perspective, with the contrivance for expandin6 or contracting the same. Under the brass ferule at a is a sliding rack and spring, or other contrivance, by which the clog can be lengthened or shortened at pleasure ; at b is another rack and spring, which allows the raised sides of the heel-piece to be expanded or contracted breadth wise. To the strap c is likewise attached an improved spring slide, by which that also may be lengthened or shortened : these several contrivances are exhibited in detail in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Fig. 3 represents a plan of the upper side of the sole of the clogs, without the brass ferule or sheath a, and with another flat plate, which encloses the work underneath, removed; the rack d and the spring e axe thus brought into view, the former being screwed to the waist of the sole, and the latter to the heel piece, in cavities or mortises made to receive them ; they are likewise so fixed that the spring always keeps in contact with the rack, as shown by the edge view of them in Fig. 4, where it is seen that there is a stout pin f which goes through a slot mortise in the rack: this pin slides backwards and forwards in the slot mortise. By this arrange ment it will be seen that the clog may be contracted by simply thrusting the toe part towards the heel, as the spring catch, which is fastened to the former, slides over the notches in the rack ; but to pull the toe from the heel, in order to lengthen the clog, it becomes necessary to press upon the brass pin f, which in this clog protrudes a little way either on the upper or the under side. Fig. 2
rvresents a plan of the upper sole of the superadded heel-piece, which consists of `a metal plate g. The sides h It are here shown as expanded for a large foot ; to contract it to suit a smaller foot it is only necessary to press the sides Is A • together, when a spring catch (nearly similar to that already described iu the other part of the clog) slides over the notches of a rack, and fixes itself wherever it is left. On the contrary, when it is wished to increase the capacity of the heel, the guide pin i which slides in the slot mortise k is to be pressed upon by the thumb nail, which thrusts the spring catch out of contact with the rack, and the sides h h spring out again in the position shown in the figure, owing to their having a metallic lining (of thin plate iron), which possesses sufficient elasticity for that purpose ; the four screw holes, shown in the heel-elate g, are for the purpose of fastening it down to the wood or leather heel-piece of the clog. The slide for lengthening or shortening the tie of the clog across the instep of the wearer is shown on an enlarged scale at Figs. 5 and 6, the same letters in each referring to the same. It consists of two plates I I laid flat-wise in contact with each other, long apertures or slots, in each of which slides a brass pin ; two of these pins are rivetted to each plate, and confine the opposite plate in contact by their heads projecting over it. To give an increased friction to the sliding plates, and to stop their action, a spring n is fixed to one of the plates, with a brass catch pin a at the other end, so that when the slide is shut up, as shown in Fig. 1, the pin o enters the hole p, where it is retained, until pressed out again in order to lengthen the tie as may be required. rig. 7 represents a clog more especially adapted to ladies wear, in which another mode of lengthening or shortening the clog is adopted. In this instance a thin iron bar or plate is perforated with holes and rivetted to the fore part of the sole, and kept steady by two pins on either side ; the other end of the perforated plate enters the heel of the clog, and is so formed at the extremity as to prevent it being entirely drawn out. Now the brass sheath a has a hole at q, and another directly opposite to it at the bottom; the pin r being then passed through both holes in the brass sheath, and through one of the holes in the intervening perforatedplate, fixes the clog firmly in the place required.
A general name for any fabric woven from any fibrous materials (except silk), such as flax, cotton, &c., but it is mostly used to signify cloth made from wool. See WEAVING and WOOLLEN MANUFACTURE.