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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Copperas
Copperas. A Name Apparently Given By Persons Ignorant Of Its True Nature, To The Sulphate Of Iron, Obtained By The Decomposition Of Iron Pyrites. The English Copperas, Or Green Vitriol, As It Is Also Called, Is Made From The Natural Combination Of Iron With Sulphur, Known In The Various Places ...

Copying Press
Copying Press. A Machine For Speedily Producing A Facsimile Copy Of Any Manuscript Recently Written. The Method Is To Place Over The Letter A Sheet Of Thin Damp Paper, And Subject Them Both To The Action Of The Press, By Which Means A Portion Of The Ink Is Transferred From ...

Coral
Coral, And Collar. Fishery. The Substance Called Coral Was Formerly Considered To Be Of Vegetable Origin, But It Is Now Admitted To Be Of Animal Origin, Belonging To The Order Zoophytes : By Analysis It Is Fouhd To Consist Almost Wholly Of Animal Matter And Carbonate Of Lime. The Coral ...

Corn
Corn. A General Name For The Various Kind* Of Grain Which Serve As Food For Man Or Other Animals ; Thus Wheat, Rye, Barley, Maize, &c., Are Comprehended Under The Term Corn. In England, However, It Is Usually Understood To Signify Wheat; In America, And Most Parts Of The World, ...

Cotton
Cotton. The Down Of The Cotton Free Or Plant, Of Which Naturalists Recognise Ten Varieties. Some Of These Are To Be Met With In The Warmer Parts Of Europe ; But Its Cultivation To Any Extent Is Chiefly Confined To Climates Within The Tropics. The Generality Of The West India ...

Cotton Spinning
Cotton Spinning; The Operation By Which Cotton-wool Is Formed Into Yarn. The Most Ancient And Simple Method Of Forming Filamentous Substances Into A Continuous Thread Was Undoubtedly By The Distaff And Spindle, A Method Still Practised By The Natives Of India, And Which Appears To Be Known To Every Nation ...

Crane
Crane. A Machine Employed At Wharfs, Warehouses, &c. For And Lowering Goods ; It Consists Of A Long Projecting Arm, Called The Jib, Having A Pulley At The Outer End, Over Which Passes The Rope Or Chain By Which The Goods Are Raised, The Other End Of The Rope Being ...

Crank
Crank. A Short Arm Or Lever Fixed To A Shaft In Any Machine, And Set In Motion By A Connecting Rod Proceeding From Some Other Part Of The Machine, Which Has A Reciprocating Motion To And Fro. To Obtain A Continuous Rotatory Motion Of The Crank And Shaft It Is ...

Crayon
Crayon Is A General Name Given To Various Mineral And Vegetable Sub Stances Used In Designing Or In Pastil, Whether They Have Been Beaten And Reduced To A Paste, Or Are Used In Their Primitive Consistence, After Sawing Or Cutting Them Into Long, Narrow Slips. In This Last Manner Red ...

Crucible
Crucible. A Pot In Common Use For A Variety Of Chemical Purposes. It Is Generally Made Of Clay, And Is Designed To Withstand A Strong Heat. The Best Crucibles For This Purpose Are The Hessian Crucibles, Composed, According To Pott, Of A Mixture Of Very Refractory Clay With Sand. The ...

Cyder
Cyder. A Fermented Beverage Prepared From Thejuice Of Apples. Large Quantities Of This Liquor Are Made Annually In England; That Made In Here Fordshire And Devonshire Is Generally Accounted Superior To Any Other. The Best Practical Directions On The Art Of Preparing This Liquor That Have Been Given To The ...

Dairy
Dairy Is The Art Of Manufacturing Various Kinds Of Food From Milk ; The Term Dairy Is Likewise Applied To The Building Where Those Operations Are Per Formed. The Great Variety Of Business In A Well-conducted Dairy Requiring The Most Minute And Assiduous Attention, May Be Conceived By Just Stating ...

Density
Density Is The Proportionate Quantity Of Matter In Bodies Of A Given Magnitude ; Thus, If A Body Contains More Matter Than Another, Both Being Of The Same Bulk, The Former Is Said To Be More Dense Than The Latter, And That In Proportion To The Relative Quantities Of Matter ...

Dialling
Dialling. The Art Of Drawing Dials On Any Surface, Plane Or Curved. On Account Of The Limited Utility Of This Art, From The Causes Before Noticed, We Shall Confine Ourselves To Explaining The General Principles Of Dialling, Which May Be Aptly Illustrated By The Phenomena Of A Hollow Or Transparent ...

Diamond
Diamond. The Most Brilliant And The Most Valued Of All The Minerals. It Is Found Of All Colours—white, Grey, Red, Brown, Yellow, Green, Blue, And Black ; The Colourless Varieties Are The Most Esteemed. If Very Transparent And Pure, They Are Said To Be Of The First Water ; And ...

Distillation
Distillation. The Art Of Obtaining In A Separate State, By The Appli Cation Of Heat, The More Volatile Parts Of Bodies ; But The Term Is Generally Limited To Signify The Separation Of Volatile Liquids, For When The Volatile Product Is Obtained From A Solid, And Assumes A Solid Form, ...

Diving Apparatus
Diving Apparatus. Contrivances For The Purpose Of Enabling Per Sons To Descend And To Remain Below The Surface Of The Water For A Great Length Of Time, To Perform Various Operations, Such As Examining The Foundations Of Bridges, Blasting Rocks, Recovering Treasure From Sunken Vessels, &c. The Appa Ratus Most ...

Docks
Docks. Enclosed Excavations Or Basins, Formed For The Reception Of Shipping. There Are Two Descriptions Of Docks, Viz. Wet Docks, And Graving Or Repairing Docks. Wet Docks Are Extensive Basins Formed Adjacent To Rivers And Harbours, With Which They Are Connected By Means Of A Lock, Furnished With Gates At ...

Drag Sheets
Drag Sheets. The Name Given To A Contrivance For Lessening The Drift Of Vessels In Heavy Gales Of Wind, For Which Mr. Burnett Obtained A Patent In 1826. The Current Caused By The Action Of The Wind Extends But A Few Feet Below The Surface, Even In The Heaviest Gales; ...

Draining
Draining, In Agriculture, The Process Of Drawing Off' The Water From Bogs, Marshes, And Lands Liable To Be Flooded By Excessive Rains, By Means Of Drains Or Trenches Cut To Some Depth Below The Surface, Which Drains Serve To Collect The Waters And Convey Them Off To Some Lower Level. ...

Drill
Drill. An Instrument For Boring Holes In Metals And Other Hard Sub Stances. It Usually Consists Of A Straight Piece Of Steel, One End Of Which Is Formed Into An Angular Point, And The Other Into A Blunted Round Point, For Inserting Into A Hole In A Steel Breast-plate, Which ...

Dry Rot
Dry Rot. A Term Applied To That Rapid Decay Of Timber By Which Its Substance Is Converted Into A Dry Powder, Which Issues From Minute Tubular Cavities Resembling The Borings Of Worms. On The Causes Of This Decay Numerous Volumes Have Been Written, And Nostrums For Its Prevention Or " ...

Dying
Dying. The Art Of Tinging Or Imbuing Various Substances With Different Colours At Pleasure. The Principal Application Of This Art Is To Fabrics Of Wool, Silk, And Cotton ; But It Is Also Applied To The Colouring Of Leather, Marble, Ivory, And Various Other Substances. We Shall Limit Our Description ...

Dynamometer
Dynamometer.. An Instrument Employed To Measure The Comparative Carriages Upon Land, And Vessels Upon Canals. These Effects Are Usually Esti Mated By The Compression Or Distension Of A Strong Spring, Or By A Steelyard Upon The Principle Of A Bent Lever Balance ; But In Both These Constructions The Instrument ...

Effect
Effect (uszrui.), In Mechanics; The Measure Of The Real Power Of Any Machine, After Deducting That Portion Which Is Lost Or Expended In Overcoming The Inertia And Friction Of The Moving Parts, And In Giving Them The Required Velocity, And Every Other Source Of Loss. The Greatest Useful Effect Which ...

Eggs
Eggs. The Envelope Which Contains The Foetus Of Various Animals, And Which, Being Voided By The Parent, Is Subsequently Matured By Incubation. This May Also Be Effected By Means Of Prolonged Artificial Heat ; And In Egypt The Art Of Hatching Chickens By Means Of Ovens Has Long Been Practised, ...

Enamel
Enamel. A Shining Vitrified Substance, Employed As An Indestructible Coating To Pictures, And Various Articles Of Taste And Utility. The Basis Of All Kinds Of Enamel Is A Perfectly Transparent And Fusible Glass, Which Is Subsequently Rendered Either Semi-transparent Or Opaque By The Admixture Of Metallic Oxides. White Enamels Are ...

Enamelled Cards
Enamelled Cards Is A Name Given To The Cards On Which A Coating In Imitation Of Real Enamel Is Produced. We Believe There Are Various Processes At Present Employed For Fabricating These Elegant And Fashionable Articles ; But The Following Account Of Mr. Christ's Process, Which We Derive From The ...

Enamelling
Enamelling. The Art Of Covering Plates Of Metal With Enamel Is Of Great Antiquity ; It Was Practised By The Egyptians, And By Them Probably Transmitted To The Greeks And Romans. Several Ancient Specimens Of Curious Workmanship Prove Its Existence In Britain At A Very Early Period. It Was For ...

Encaustic Painting
Encaustic Painting. A Method Ofpainting, Much In Use Among The Ancients, In Which Wax Was Employed To Give A Gloss To The Colours, And Permanence To The Work. From The Meagre Account Given To Us By Pliny Of The Method, It Is Evident He Was Not In The Secret Himself; ...

Engraving
Engraving. The Art Of Producing Figures Or Designs Upon Metals, Stone, Wood, And Various Other Substances, By Means Of Lines Cut Upon The Sur Face. In This Extensive Sense Of The Term, The Art Is Doubtless Of Very Great Antiquity, Repeated Mention Being Made In Scripture Of Seals, Signets, And ...

Eolipile
Eolipile. A Name That Has Been Given To An Instrument Variously Modified, For Converting In A Close Vessel Water Into Steam. The First Individual Who Used It, Appears To Have Been Hero The Elder, A Grecian Mechanic, Who Settled In Alexandria About 130 Years Prior To The Christian Era, Whose ...

Equivalents
Equivalents, Ciizmicat. A Term Happily Introduced Into Chemistry By Dr. Wollaston, To Express The System Of Definite Ratios In Which The Corpus Cular Objects Of This Science Combine, Referred To A Common Standard Of Unity. The Two Grand Laws Of Chemical Combination Are, 1st, The General Reciprocity Of The Saturating ...

Essential Oils
Essential Oils, (called Also Volatile And Ethereal,) Are Distinguished From Fixed Or Fat Oils, From The Circumstance Of Their Rising In Distillation At Temperatures Below That Of 320° Fahr. By Themselves. They Are Mostly Obtained From Odoriferous Vegetable Substances, Although Some Of The Principles Are Found In Animal Matter. In ...

Eudiometry
Eudiometry. The Measurement Of The Quantity Of Oxygen Contained In Atmospheric Air, Or, Indeed, In Any As In Which It Is Not Intimately Com Bined, Is Named Eudiometry, And The Instrument By Which It Is Performed Is Named The Eudiometer. There Are Two Modes Of Effecting This ; Either By ...

Evaporation
Evaporation. A Term Generally Used To Ify The Dissipation Of The Volatile Parts Of A Compound Body, Whether Caused By The Action Of The Sun And Atmosphere, Or By Artificial Means ; Although Some Authors Restrict The Use Of The Word To The Former Case, And Employ The Term Vaporization ...

Excavating Machines
Excavating Machines, For Digging And Removing Earth In Extensive Excavations, Have Occupied The Attention Of Many Ingenious Men, And Various Machines For The Purpose Have Been Proposed And Tried With Different Degrees Of Success. The Great Difficulty Appears To Consist In Adapting Any Peculiar Arrangement Of Mechanism Which Shall Be ...

Expansion
Expansion, In Natural Philosophy, The Enlargement Or Increase Of Bulk In Bodies, Chiefly By Means Of Heat. This Is One Of The Most General Effects Of Caloric, Common To All Bodies Whatever, Whether Solid, Fluid, Or In The Aeriform State. Metals Expand In The Following Order, Those That Expand Most ...

Experimental Philosophy
Experimental Philosophy. That Philosophy Which Proceeds On Experiments, And Deduces The Laws Of Nature, And The Properties And Powers Of Bodies, And Their Action Upon Each Other, From Sensible Experiments And Observations. The Business Of Experimental Philosophy Is To Inquire Into And Investigate The Reasons And Causes Of The Various ...

Farina
Farina Implies Generally Vegetable Flour. The Flour Of The Parisian Bakers (which It May Be Presumed Is Chiefly, If Not Wholly, Wheaten,) Was Ascertained By M. Vauquelin To Consist Of Gluten 10.2, Starch 72.8, Sweet Matter 4.2, Gummy Glutinous Matter 2.8, And Moisture 10, In 100 Parts. The Farina Of ...

Feathers
Feathers. A General Name For The Natural Covering Of Birds. Chemically Examined They Are Found To Differ But Little From Hair Or Bristles. Mr. Hatchet Boiled Some Feathers For A Long Time In Water, But Discovered No Traces Of Gelatine ; The Quill Is Chiefly Albumen. Feathers Form A Considerable ...

Felling Trees
Felling Trees. The Cutting Down Of Trees At The Proper Time, And In The Best Manner, Requires Both Knowledge And Skill. Its Proper Season Is Deter Mined By Various Causes, As Maturity Of Growth, Defects In The Trees, And New Arrangements. Every Tree That Indicates Decay, Ought To Be Immediately ...

Fermentation
Fermentation. When Vegetables And Animals Are Deprived Of Life, The Elements Of Which They Are Composed Exert An Action On Each Other ; Some Of Them Enter Into New Combinations, Others Become Entirely Undecompounded, And The Identity Of The Original Substance Is Destroyed. Fermentation Is Of Three Kinds : First, ...

Fid
Fid. A Short And Thick Bar Of Wood Or Iron, Which, Passing Through A Hole Cut In The Lower Part Of The Topmast Or Top-gallant Mast, And Resting Upon The Trestle Trees, Serves To Support Those Masts. A Most Important Improvement Upon This Part Of A Ship's Apparatus, Is The ...

File
File. A Steel Instrument Employed For Shaping Or Giving A Smooth Surface To Articles Made Of Metal, Bone, Wood, &c. The Varieties Of Files Are Very Extensive, Being Expressly Adapted To Numerous Different Trades Or Branches Of Manufacture. There Is, However, An Immense Variety Of Files Which Are Appli Cable ...

Filtration
Filtration. A Process For Freeing Liquids From Particles Held In Suspension In Them, By Causing Them To Percolate Through Various Porous Substances, Which Intercept The Insoluble Matter, But Allow A Passage To The Liquids, Which Are Thereby Rendered Clear And Transparent. The Purpose To Which Filtration Is Most Ex Tensively ...

Fire Engine
Fire Engine. An Engine For Projecting Water Upon Buildings On Fire. Buckets Composed Of Wood, Leather, Or Other Suitable Material, Were The Only Means Employed In England And On The Continent For Extinguishing Fires, Up To The Middle Or Close Of The Sixteenth Century. The Earliest Mention Of Any Description ...

Fire Escape
Fire Escape. Perhaps Few Subjects Have More Extensively Engaged The Public Attention, Or Exercised So Much Ingenuity, As The Best Mode Of Rescuing Individuals From Death By Fire. Notwithstanding The Varied Talents That Have Been Directed To This Object, It Is A Singular Fact, That No Invention Has Yet Been ...

Fire Place
Fire-place Is A General Term Given To The Brick, Stone, And Iron-work, Which Constitute The Apparatus For Heating The Apartments Of Dwelling-houses, And For Performing Culinary And Other Domestic Operations, To Which The Various Names Of Stoves, Stove-grate, Grate, And Range, Are Given ; But As It Would Be Uninteresting ...

Fire Works
Fire-works. As The Leading Object Of This Work Is Utility And Not Mere Amusement, We Shall But Very Briefly Notice The Nature And Composition Of Artificial Fire-works. Of These The Most Generally Interesting, From The Great Altitude Of Their Flight, Are Rockets. They Are Made By Ramming Into Strong Cylindrical ...

Fires
Fires, Errineinsinne 01p. The Most Suitable And Convenient Material For Extinguishing Fire Is Water; But When That Cannot Be Speedily Obtained In Suf Ficient Abundance, It Has Been Proposed To Increase Its Extinguishing Property By The Addition Of Various Substances. M. Van Aken, A Swede, Employed An Andphlogistic Composition Of ...

Flax Dressing
Flax Dressing. Before Flax Can Be Converted Into Cloth Or Other Articles, It Undergoes Certain Preparatory Processes, Constituting What Is Called " Dressing;" The Object Of Which Is To Separate The Boon, Or Core, From The Flax, Which Is The Cuticle, Or Bark Of The Plant, And To Straighten Out ...

Flint
Flint. A Mineral Consisting Of 98 Silica, 0.50 Lime, 0.25 Alumina, 0.25 Oxide Of Iron, I Loss. The Domestic Use Of This Stone, For Producing Light By Collision Against Steel, Is Well Known. It Is Also Much Used In Gun-locks For Firing The Powder. The Manufacture Of Gun-flints Employs Numerous ...

Floating Bodies
Floating Bodies, Are Those Bodies Which Swim On The Surface Of A Fluid, The Stability, Equilibrium And Other Circumstances Of Which Form An Interesting Subject Of Mechanical And Hydrostatical Investigation, Particularly As Applied To The Construction And Management Of Ships And Other Vessels ; But As The Sub Ject Is ...

Flooring Cramp
Flooring Cramp. A Machine Invented By Mr. Andrew Smith, For Laying Down Floors, So As To Make Very Tight And Close Joints With Great Facility. The Annexed Engraving Shows A Perspective View Of The Machine As In Opera Tion, By Which Its Construction And The Mode Of Using It Are ...

Flooring Machine
Flooring Machine. A Machine Invented By Mr. Muir, Of Glasgow, The Object Of Which Is The Preparation Of Complete Flooring Boards With Extra Ordinary Dispatch, And In The Most Perfect Manner; The Several Operations Of Saw Ing, Planing, Grooving And Tongueing, Being All Carried On At The Same Instant, By ...

Fluoric Acid
Fluoric Acid. The Name Given To An Undecomposed Substance, Which, Combined With Lime, Constitutes The Fluor Spar. Fluoric Acid May Be Obtained By Putting A Quantity Of The Spar In Powder Into A Leaden Retort, Pouring Over It An Equal Quantity Of Sulphuric Acid, And Then Applying A Gentle Heat; ...

Flux
Flux. A General Term Used To Denote Any Substance Or Mixture Added To Assist The Fission Of Minerals. In The Large Way, Limestone And Fusible Spar Are Used As Fluxes. The Fluxes Made Use Of In Philosophical Experiments Consist Usually Of Alkalies, Which Render Earthy Mixtures Fusible By Converting Them ...

Force
Force Is The Name Applied In Mechanics To Whatever Produces Motion Or Pressure. Thus We Have The Forces Of Gravity And Of Elasticity, Muscular Force, And That Of Electricity And Magnetism. These Will Be Considered Under The Head Pauta Movyr8 ; At We Shall Confine Ourselves To The General Laws ...

Forge
Forge Properly Signifies A Little Furnace, Furnished With A Pair Of Bellows To Render The Combustion More Vivid ; And Employed By Smiths And Other Artisans In Iron, Steel, &c. To Heat Their Metals, In Order To Soften And Render Them More Manageable Upon The Anvil. In Laboratories There Is ...

Founding
Founding Is The Art Of Casting Or Forming Of Melted Metal An Infinite Variety Of Articles To Any Given Pattern Or Design ; And The Place Or Building Where The Art Is Carried On Is Called A Foundry. Foundries Are, However, Dis Tinguished Either By The Metals They Work Or ...

Friction
Friction, In Mechanics, The Rubbing Of The Parts Of Engines Or Machines Against Each Other, By Which Means A Great Part Of Their Effect Is Destroyed. A Body Upon A Horizontal Plane Should Be Capable Of Being Moved By The Smallest Application Of Force; But This Is Not The Case, ...

Fuel
Fuel. Those Substances Which Receive And Retain Fire,until They Are Wholly Or Partially Consumed. Dr. Black Divided Fuel Into Five Classes. The First Cons Prehends The Fluid Inflammable Bodies; The Second, Peat Or Turf; The Third, Charcoal Of Wood ; The Fourth, Pit Coal Charred; And The Fifth, Wood Or ...

Funnel
Funnel. A Conical Or Bell-mouthed Instrument With A Narrow Tube, For Facilitating The Transferring Of Liquids Or Small Substances From One Vessel To Another. Any Pipe Or Passage Is Sometimes Called By This Name, In Particular The Small Shaft Or Tube Of A Flue. Fur, In Commerce, Signifies The Skins ...

Furnace
Furnace. A Vessel Or Apparatus, Wherein Fuel Is Burnt In Chemical, Manu Facturing, And Culinary Operations. Furnaces Are As Various, And Even More So, Than The Particular Objects For Which They Are Designed ; To Accomplish These So That They Shall Perform Their Offices In The Most Economical And Convenient ...