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Dairy

milk, utensils, proper, butter, scalding, cows, cheese, business, farm and coolers

DAIRY is the art of manufacturing various kinds of food from milk ; the term dairy is likewise applied to the building where those operations are per formed. The great variety of business in a well-conducted dairy requiring the most minute and assiduous attention, may be conceived by just stating the principal heads; namely, the proper choice, food, and management of cows; the mode of milking, according to the variation of circumstances; the manage ment of the milk and cream preparatory to the making of butter ; the processes of making butter according to the mechanism used for that purpose ; the manner of making the various kinds of cheese ; the vatting, pressing, and salting the same, &c. These important subjects, which scarcely fall within the plan of this work, are most ably treated, in all their interesting details, in the Oxford Ency elopirdia, from which valuable publication we extract the following observations on the proper position, structure, and arrangement, of a dairy and its utensils. As respects the dairy-house, the author observes, " It is a matter of consider able importance that buildings of this description should be placed in a proper situation, with respect to the other parts of the farm; this will save both expense and labour, as well as promote convenience. Another principal object in choosing a situation for the dairy is a proper degree of temperature for carrying on the business which is to be conducted in it. To accomplish this, the following are the chief objects to be aimed at. The dairy buildings should be situate sufficiently near the sheds or cow standings, that the milk may be readily conveyed to them, the form being such as to combine well with the nature of the other erections. The door or entrance into the room destined for the milk should be made through that of the scalding room, which should have the copper for heating water and other purposes, placed in a shed without it, that the heat may be kept at as great a distance as possible from the milk, a cock being fixed in the bottom of it for conveying the heated water through a trough or pipe across the scalding room, in which another cock should be fixed for the convenience of washing smaller utensils, passing the wall into the milk-leads, pans, trays, or coolers, that whenever they are required to be scalded the boiling water may at once pass through the whole range of them, or be de tained at pleasure in any one of them, so as to effect the business in the most complete and perfect manner, being afterwards taken off by a suitable drain made for the purpose. The passage of the water through the wall of the dairy should be in a trough of sufficient dimensions to admit the discharging of a pail full of milk into it with perfect safety, having a hair sieve so placed in it as that the whole of the milk of the cows may be made to pass through it into the neces.sary trays or coolers in which it is to stand, as by this simple contrivance the necessity of dirty men or boys entering the dairy-house is wholly prevented. There should be likewise a trough, pipe, or some other similar contrivance, for the purpose of conveying the waste milk, whey, &c., from the dairy-house to the cisterns for containing the wash for the pigs, &c. Several plans for regu lating the temperature of the dairy have, been proposed by different persons. It may be accomplished in various ways, as by having double walls and roofs, or by hollow walls, or by the walls having a vacuity left of eight or ten inches in width between the lath and plaster. A spring or fountain rising in the centre of the principal apartment, when it can be procured, will be a moat valuable convenience. It is obvious that the nature and number of these

buildings on any farm must depend on the kind of dairy business proposed to be carried on, whether milk, or butter, or cheese; and the size is always regu lated by the number of cows. The dimensions usually adopted in Glouces tershire are 20 feet by 16 for forty cows; and 40 feet by 30 for one hundred cows. It is well known that without a suitable place for preserving the milk and performing the various operations, the dairy business cannot proceed with any prospect of advantage. To preserve an equable temperature, a northern aspect has been suggested as the most proper. These apartments should be dry, and to render them clean and sweet at all periods without much trouble, their situation should be in the immediate neighbourhood of a spring or clear rivulet. The roof and walls should also be defended from the action of the sun's rays by shady trees, buildings, &c. For the milk dairy two good rooms are all that are necessary ; namely, one for scalding, cleaning, and airing the utensils, and the other for the reception of the milk. For a butter dairy three apartments will be required; one for holding, washing, scalding, and airing the utensils ; one for keeping the milk ; and one for churning the butter. Four apartments are necessary to a well-constructed cheese dairy ; namely, one for the reception of the milk : another for the scalding and pressing of the cheese ; a third, where it is salted; and a fourth, called the cheese-lott, in which the cheeses are deposited." As respects the dairy utensils, our writer states, that " the only proper materials for making the vessels and implements belonging to a dairy are wood, porcelain, glass, and slate ; they are, however, made mostly of wood, as glass and porcelain are too expensive ; slate has lately been em ployed in constructing milk coolers." Tinned iron is, however, often used for skimming dishes and other purposes ; lead and glazed earthenware form many of the utensils in some dairies, and cast iron has been recommended for the same purpose: but it will be proper to observe that lead is poisonous, and so are some of the metallic substances that enter into the composition which forms the glazing of earthenware. Now, since milk contains acids capable of dissolving these metallic compounds, it must follow that the use of them in a diary must be very prejudicial. The human constitution must infallibly be injured by imbibing these deleterious solutions ; but the progress of the mischief is slow ; and when at length the mischief is discovered, we seldom or never ascribe it to the proper cause. Nor is the use of iron to be recommended, for though its solution in the acid of milk may be harmless, yet the milk, butter, and cheese, into which this solution enters, may be altered in their taste, and acquire new properties from it. The best vessels and utensils for the dairy are, therefore, those which are made of wood, and which are kept in a sweet and clean state by daily scalding, scouring, &c. The utensils which are most generally wanted in a dairy farm, are milk-pails, skeels, bowls, strainers and coolers, churns, lading and skimming dishes, cheese tub, ladders, vats, cloths, and presses. The fitting a dairy, where one churn is used, with these utensils, will cost from twenty to twenty-four pounds,—this is the estimated value in Gloucestershire; in a farm consisting of twenty-five or thirty cows the cost would probably be double that sum, and so on, in proportion to the magnitude of the farm.