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Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia

Gallic Acid
Gallic Acid Is Found Most Abundantly In The Vegetable Substance Galls, Whence It Derives Its Name But Most Astringent Vegetable Matter Contains It. The Simplest Mode Of Obtaining It Is Probably That Recommended By Mr. Fiedler. An Ounce Of Powdered Galls Is To Be Boiled In Sixteen Ounces Of ...

Garnet
Garnet, In Mineralogy, A Species Of The Flint Genus, Of Which There Are Two Sub-species, Viz. The Precious And Common. The Precious, Or Oriental, Is Red, But Of Various Shades ; It Occurs Most Commonly Crystallized, Either As A Dodecadron, Or As A Double Eight-sided Pyramid. Garnets Are Found In ...

Gas Engine
Gas Engine. An Engine In Which The Motive Force Is Derived From The Alternate Expansion And Condensation Of The Liquefiable Gases. For The Discovery That Certain Gases May Be Reduced To The Liquid Form, And For The Suggestion Of Such Gases As Prime Movers Of Machinery, We Are Indebted, (as ...

Gas Lighting
Gas Lighting. The Art Of Procuring And Applying To The Purpose Of Illumination The Inflammable Gases Evolved By Animal And Vegetable Matter When Exposed In Close Vessels To A High Temperature. This Important And Highly Beneficial Invention Originated In The Researches Of Modern Chemists; But A Long Period Elapsed Between ...

Gas Vacuum Engine
Gas Vacuum Engine. An Engine Working By The Pressure Of The Atmosphere, A Partial Vacuum Being Obtained By The Combustion Of Hydrogen Gas In A Close Vessel. The First Person Who Proposed Obtaining Power By This Means We Believe To Have Been The Late Mr. Geci4 Of Cambridge, Who Published ...

Gate
Gate, In Architecture, A Large Door Leading Or Giving Entrance Into An Open Area, As A Field Or Court-yard, Or Into A Considerable Building, As A Palace Or Prison. An Excellent Method Of Hanging Gates Of Large Dimensions, Has Been Introduced By Mr. H. It. Palmer, Which Is A Useful ...

Gauge
Gauge. An Adjustable Standard Of Measure Employed In Various Arts Where A Number Of Articles Of The Same Kind Are Re Quired To Be As Nearly As Possible Of The Same Dimensions. Gauges Are Various, Constructed According To The Purposes To Which They Are To Be Applied. The Cut On ...

Gauge
Gauge, Reim. An Instrument For Showing The Depth Of Rain Or Quantity I Falling On A Given Surface At Any Place. These Instruments Are Variously Con Structed ; The One Shown In The Engraving On The Following Page Is The Inven Tion Of Mr. Crossley, And Is An Elegant Application ...

Gearing
Gearing. A Train Of Toothed Wheels, For Transmitting Motions In Machinery. There Are Two Sorb Of Gearing In Common ; Viz. Spur Gear And Beveled Gear. In The Former, The Teeth Are Arranged Round Either The Concave Or Convex Surface Of A Cylindrical Wheel In The Direction Of Radii From ...

Glass
Glass. A Well-known Transparent And Brittle Factitious Substance, Of Which The Basis Is Silica, Brought Into Complete Fusion By The Addition Of One Of The Fixed Alkalies. There Are Several Different Kinds Of Glass, Adapted To Different Uses. The Best And Most Beautiful, Are The Flint And The Plate Glass; ...

Glazing
Glazing, As It Is Now Practised, Embraces The Cutting Of All The Varieties Of Glass Manufactured For Windows, Together With Fixing It In Sashes By Means Of Brads And A Stopping Of Putty ; Also The Forming Of Casements, And Securing The Glue By Bands Of Lead Fastened To Outside ...

Globe
Globe, In Practical Mathematics, An Artificial Sphere, On Which Are Repre Sented The Countries And Seas Of Our Earth, Or The Face Of The Heavens, The Circles Of The Sphere, &c. That With The Parts Of The Earth Delineated Upon It Is Called The "terrestrial Globe," And That With The ...

Glue
Glue. A Tenacious Viscid Substance, Used Chiefly For Binding Or Cementing Pieces Of Wood Together : It Is Usually Prepared From The Cutting And Parings Of Hides, And From The Hoofs And Horns Of Animals. For This Purpose The Materials Are First Steeped In Water For Two Or Three Days, ...

Gold
Gold. A Yellow Metal Of Specific Gravity 19.3, Which Is Greater Than Any Other Body In Nature, Except Plating. It Is Soft, Very Tough, Ductile, And Malleable, Unalterable And Fixed, Whether In The Atmosphere Or In The Heat Of The Hottest Furnaces; But It Has Been Volatilized By Powerful Burning ...

Gold Beating
Gold-beating. The Gold Is Prepared For Leaves By Melting It In A Blacklead Crucible, With Some Borax, In A Wind Furnace; And As Soon As It Is In Perfect Fusion, It Is Poured Out Into An Iron Ingot Mould, Then Forged And Passed Between Steel Rollers, Until They Become Long ...

Gold Wire
Gold Wire. That Which Is Commonly Called Gold Wire Is In Fact Merely Silver Wire Gilt. The Following Is The Process Employed For This Purpose. First An Ingot Of Silver Of 24 Pounds Is Forged Into A Cylinder Of About An Inch In Diameter, Which Is Reduced By Passing It ...

Gravity
Gravity, In Physics, The Natural Tendency Of Bodies Towards Centre. Terrestrial Or Particular Gravity Is That By Which Bodies Descend Or Tend Towards The Centre Of The Earth ; The Phenomena Of Which Are As Follows :-1. All Eircumterrestrial Bodies Tend Towards A Point Which Is Either Accurately Or ...

Grenade
Grenade. A Kind Of Small Bomb Or Shell Filled With An Explosive Com Position, And Fired By A Fusee Inserted In The Touch-hole. Their Principal Use Is In A Close Assault, When They Are Thrown By Hand From The Tops Of Ships Or Ramparts Of Fortresses, Whence They Are Frequently ...

Grinding
Grinding. A Mechanical Process, In Which Certain Effects Are Produced By The Attrition Of Two Surfaces. The Process Of Grinding Is Of Extensive Use In Various Mechanical Arts ; And Great Diffe Rences Exist In The Mode Of Conducting It According To The Purposes For Which It Is Employed, Which ...

Gun
Gun. A Fire-arm Or Weapon Chiefly Composed Of A Barrel Or Long Tube, From Which Shot And Other Missiles Are Discharged By Means Of Inflamed Gun Powder ; Ignition Being Effected By The Percussion Of Flint And Steel, Or That Of Detonating Powder, Through The Instrumentality Of A Piece Of ...

Gunpowder
Gunpowder. The Origin Of The Invention Of Gunpowder Is A Question Upon Which The Learned Are By No Means Agreed ; Some Attributing It To Schwartz, A German Monk, In 1320, Others To Roger Bacon, Who Lived Nearly A Hundred Years Prior To That Date ; Whilst Other Writers Again ...

Hand Mills
Hand-mills. This Term Does Not Properly Apply To Any Specific Kind Of Mill, But To All That Are Worked By Hand, Such As Those Employed In The Domestic Offices Of Grinding Coffee, Pepper, &c. There Are, However, Mills Of A La R Description, Which Are Also Worked By Hand For ...

Hardening
Hardening And Case-hardening. See How And &rant. Harmonica. The Name Given To A Musical Instrument Invented By Dr. Franklin, In Which The Tones Are Produced By Friction Against The Edges Of A Series Of Glasses. The Glasses Are Blown As Near As Possible Into The Form Of Hemi Spheres, Having ...

Hartshorn
Hartshorn, (seim Oe,) Is Now Usually Obtained By The Distillation Of Bones, Hoofs, Horns, And In General The Refuse Of Slaughter-houses. An Iron Still Or Retort Is Generally Used With A Pipe Leading From It Into A Worm Con Denser. The Retort Is Filled With Bones Roughly Broken, Or Other ...

Hautboy
Hautboy. A Musical Instrument Provided With Keys Like A Flute, But Blown By A Reed At One End, And Spreading Out Conically Towards The Other End. Hay. Grass Dried In The Sunshine. The Risk Of This Operation Being Suc Cessfully Completed, Owing To Unfavourable Changes In The Weather, Is Well ...

Helm
Helm. In Naval Architecture, The Apparatus For Steering Or Guiding The Motion Of A Ship. The Helm Is Usually Composed Of Three Parts--the Rudder, The Tiller, And The Wheel, Except In Small Vessels, Where The Wheel Is Unneces Sary. The Rudder Is A Long And Flat Piece Of Timber, Or ...

Hinges
Hinges. The Joints On Which Doors, Lids, Gates, Shutters, And An Infinite Number Of Articles Are Made To Swing, Fold, Open, Or Shut Up. Independently Of A Great Variety Of Kinds And Sizes Kept Ready Made By Ironmongers, There Is A Constant Demand For Others Of Novel Forms Or Properties ...

Holdfast
Holdfast, Carpenters, Is The Name Of A Very Useful Tool, Employed Not Only By Carpenters, But By Other Mechanics, For Hdditg Fast Their Work Upon The Bench Whilst Being Operated Upon. It Usually Consists Of A Round Bar Of Iron, Thickening A Little Upwards, And Bent At The Upper End, ...

Hone
Hone. A Fine Grained Kind Of Stone, Used For Sharpening Razors, Pen Knives, And Other Cutting Instruments. The Exquisite Edge Given By Cutlers To Razors, Lancets, &c. Can Rarely Be Produced Bythose Persons Who Are Not In The Habit Of Using Them. This Arises Partly From Ignorance Of The Properties ...

Honey
Honey. A Sweet And Scarcely Fluid Substance, Which Is Collected By Bees From The Nectaria Of Flowers, And Deposited In The Cells Of The Combs For The Support Of The Bees And Their Offspring. Naturalists Are Not Agreed Whether Honey Undergoes A Particular Elaboration In The Bodies Of Bees, Thence ...

Hops
Hops. The Dried Flower Buds Of A British Bng Plant, Which Grows Wild In Many Parts Of England; But For The Purposes Of Commerce And Brewing, They Are Usually Cultivated In Extensive Plantations, Where They Require The Growth Of Some Years Before They Attain Perfection. To Cultivate It With Suc ...

Horology
Horology. The Art Of Constructing Machines For Measuring Time ; But From The Circumstance Of Clocks And Watches Having Very Generally Superseded All Other Contrivances For This Purpose, The Term Is Now Usually Understood As Referring To These Latter Instruments Solely. In These Machines A Pendulum, Or A Spiral Spring, ...

Horse Power
Horse Power. The Force With Which A Horse Acts Is Compounded Of His Weight And Muscular Strength. If, Then, The Weight Of One Horse Exceed That Of Another To Which It Is Inferior In Muscular Strength, The Weaker And Heavier Horse Will Overcome A Resistance Which The Stronger And Lighter ...

Horse Shoes
Horse-shoes. Curved Pieces Of Iron, Made To Fit Accurately The Horny Hoofs Of Horses, To Which They Are Nailed In A Peculiar Manner ; The Use Of The Shoes Being To Preserve The Hoofs From The Destructive Effect That Would Take Place By Their Collision And Friction Against The Hard ...

Hose
Hose. A Term Given To A Flexible Tube Attached To Hydraulic Engines, For Conveying Water Or Other Fluid To Any Required Point. Fire-engine Hose Was Originally Made Of Leather Sewed Up, Which Being Very Liable To Get Out Of Order, Many Attempts Have Been Made To Discover Some Cheaper And ...

Hot Pressing
Hot-pressing Is, Strictly Speaking, The Art Of Applying Heat In Conjunction With Mechanical Pressure ; But It Is Generally Understood To Mean The Employ Ment Of That Process To Paper, Linen, And Similar Fabrics, By Which They Acquire A Smooth And Glossy Surface; And The Mode Of Operating Is As ...

Hydraulic Engines
Hydraulic Engines, Are All Kinds Of Machines Which Either Receive Motion From The Weight Or Impulse Of Water, Or Are Employed In Raising It ; But The Term Is Sometimes Used To Denote A Machine Which In Its General Con Struction Resembles A Steam Engine, But The Piston Of Which ...

Hydraulic Machines
Hydraulic Machines. Under This Head We Propose To Notice Various Machines Which Are At Times Employed In Lieu Of Pumps For Raising Water, Or Which Have Been Proposed For That Purpose. The Most Simple, As Well, Perhaps, As The Most Ancient (next To The Bucket And Windlass), Is The Cochlion ...

Hydraulics
Hydraulics Is The Term Applied To That Collection Of Facts Which Describe The Phenomena Of Fluids In Motion. In Treating Of Hydrostatics, We Have Shown That Fluids Press In All Directions, And That The Pressure Is As The Depth : Hence If A Small Hole Be Made In The Bottom ...

Hydrometer
Hydrometer.. An Instrument For Ascertaining The Specific Gravities Of Different Liquids. The Most Common Description Of These Instruments Consists Of A Hollow Ball, Of Either Metal Or Glass, Capable Of Floating In Any Known Liquid, And Having Two Stems, The Lower One Terminating In A Weight, In Order That The ...

Hydrostatics
Hydrostatics Explains The Pressure And Equilibrium Of Liquids, Or Of What Have Been Generally Termed Inelastic Fluids. A Fluid Is A Body Whose Parts Are Put Into Motion Among One Another By The Slightest Force, And Which Return To Their Former State As Soon As The Impressed Force Is Removed. ...

Hygrometer
Hygrometer. An Instrument For Ascertaining The Degrees Of Dryness Or Moisture Of The Atmosphere ; Therefore Whatever Substance Expands By Mois Ture Or Contracts By Dryness, May Be Employed For The Purpose, In Connexion With A Suitable Index And Scale, Showing The Changes It Undergoes. The Hygrometer Invented By Saussure ...

Ice Boats
Ice-boats. There Are Two Descriptions Of Boats Which Come Under This Denomination ; Namely, Those That Are Designed To Sail Upon The Surface Of The Ice, And Those That Are Employed To Open The Navigation Of Frozen Rivers Or Canals, By Breaking Up The Ice. The First-mentioned Kind Of Boats ...

Ice House
Ice-house. A Repository For Ice During The Summer Season. In London And Other Places, Ice Is Kept By The Confectioners In Deep Cellars, From Which The Ex Ternal Air Is Excluded As Much As Possible, And Provided With Drains To Keep Them Dry. When The Surrounding Soil Is Moist, A ...

Ice Saws
Ice-saws. Large Saws Used For Cutting Through The Ice For Relieving Ships When Frozen Up. The Vessels Employed In The Greenland Fisheries, And Others That Navigate The Polar Seas, Are Regularly Furnished With These Machines, As The Lives Of The Crew Not Unfrequently Depend On The Expedition With Which A ...

Inclined Plane
Inclined Plane. One Of The Mechanic Powers Or Simple Machines By Which Weights May Be Elevated With Great Facility. If A Heavy Body Be Sus Pended Freely In Space, Or Against A Vertical Plane, It Is Manifest That A Weight Equal To Itself Must Be Employed To Sustain It. If, ...

Indigo
Indigo. A Blue Colouring Matter, Extracted From The Leaves And Stalks Of The Indigofera Tiacteria, Or Amid Plant. The Ancients Were Acquainted With This Dye Under The Name Of Indicum. It Is Found Both In The East And West Indies, Is Spontaneous In China And Cochin China, And Is Cultivated ...

Inks
Inks, Are Fluid Compositions Designed For Writing, Drawing, And Printing. As There Are A Great Variety Of Sorts, We Shall Treat Them Consecutively, According To The Following Arrangement Of The Subject, For Writing. 1. On Black Writing Inks Generally. 2. On Common Black Writing Ink. 3. On Best, Or Japan ...

Inkstands
Inkstands. Utensils For Holding Ink For The Convenience Of Dipping A Pen Into Them. They Were Formerly Chiefly Made Of Horn, But Now Generally Of Glass Or Metal. It Is Not Our Intention To Describe The Ordinary Kinds, That Are Familiar To Every Eye, But Only The Recent Elegant Improvements ...

Iodine And Iodic Acid
Iodine And Iodic Acid. Iodine Is A Peculiar And Compounded Prin Ciple ; It Was Discovered In Paris In 1811 By M. Courtois, A Saltpetre Manufac Turer, Who Observed A Rapid Corrosion Of His Vessels In His Processes For Obtaining Soda From The Ashes Of Sea Weeds ; And In ...

Iris Metal Ornaments
Iris Metal Ornaments. A Patent Was Taken Out A Few Years Ago By Mr. Barton, Of The Mint, For A Very Ingenious Method Of Ornamenting Steel And Other Metals With The Prismatic Colours. It Is Effected By Engraving With An Engine Lines On The Surface Of The Metals Of Extreme ...

Iron
Iron. A Metal Of A Bluish-white Colour, Of Great Hardness And Elasticity; Very Malleable, And Exceedingly Tenacious And Ductile. It Is The Most Abundant, The Most Important, And The Most Valuable Of All The Metals. Although A Simple Nndecompounded Substance, It Is Not Naturally Found In This State, Except In ...