* LEPSIUS, CARL RICHARD, the son of Carl Peter, a distin guished writer on mediaeval architecture, was born at Naumberg en-the-Saal, in Prussian Saxony, on December 24th, 1811. Ho received his first instruction from his father, and in the public school at Naumberg. In 1t28 he proceeded to the University of Leipzig, where he commenced the study of philology, which he continued at the universities of Gottingen and Berlin, at the last-named place having the advantage of being under Bopp. In 1833 the degree of Doctor was conferred on him by the University of Berlin for his essay ' De tabulia Eugubinis;' and in 1834 appeared his Paliiographie ale Mittel der Sprachforschuug.' In order to extend his linguiatical and archaeological knowledge he travelled to France, where the recom mendation of Alexander von Humboldt secured him a frioudly reception from the French literati. From hence in 1835 he proceeded to Italy, passing the winter in Turin aud Pisa, and in April 1846 he arrived at Rome, where he met with Bunsen, then ambassador from Prussia to the Pope, with whom he formed an iutimato friendship. At Rome he became a member of the Archeological Institute. He now more particularly directed his attention to the antiquities of Egypt, and in 1837 his Lcttre h M. Itosellibi sur Ealphsbet hi6ro glyphique,' excited considerable attention; as did also several of his essays printed in the Transactions' of the Archaeological Institute upon some Egyptian monuments of art; and still more another, printed at Leipzig in 1842, on 'Des Todtenbuch der sEeypter ' (' Obituary of the Egyptians'), from a hieroglyphic on papyrus at Turin. During these investigations ho also found time to prepare two essays for the Frenob Institute ; one on the relationship between the Semitic, Indian, iEthiopian, and other tongues; the second ou the origin of the numerals In the Indo-Germanic languages, for which he received a prize of 1200 francs. Ilis residence in Italy also enabled him to investigate the Etrurian and Oscan dialects, of which he pub lished at Leipzig some fragments, quacriptioues Utnbricm et Oacm,' with an explanatory commentary iu 1841; followed in 1842 by two essays on the Tyrrhenian Pelaegi in Etruria,' and on the 'Dissemina tion of the Italian Monetary System front Etrurie.' But though these works all pertain to his comparatively short residence in Italy, lie had left it in 1838 on a mission to England from the Archeological Institute of Rome. here iu London he agaiu met with Bunsen, cud with him projected a great historical and antiquarian work on Egypt, but which was to depend upon a journey to that country, which he then contemplated. Bunsen warmly supported the plan, but instead of his travelling alone, when a few years later he had returned to Ber lin, Bunsen, with the assistance of Humboldt, Eichhoree, and others, induced Frederick-William IV. of Prussia to place him at the head of a large party of learned men to investigate thoroughly the antiquities and state of Egypt; and before his departure he was created pro fessor extraordinary of the University of Berlin. In the autumn of
1842 the party was assembled at Alexandria : it oonsisted of Lepsius, draughtsmen to copy the hieroglyphics, architects, painters, &c., in all ten persons, exclusive of attendants. It received the protection of the Egyptian government, and everything progressed favourably. Among the results was the discovery of some of the monuments of the dynasty of the Pharaohs; and above the second cataract near Gizeh and Sakara the excavations of fifty of the graves of the Ethio pian dynasty of Egypt, identifying them with the 18th dynasty of Manetho. Lepeins also believes he discovered in the ruins of Howara the remains of the celebrated Labyrinth, and the Lake Mcerie in the upper part of Faium. He also thinks he has proved that Ethiopia derived its civilisation from Egypt, and from an authentic Ethiopic inscription at Philoe that the pure Ethiopians of Meroe were not a black but a brown Caucasian race, whose domination at a later period tended towards the east, and who during the middle ages held dominion on both sides of the Red Sea under the name of Bedja. Lepsius also succeeded by means of fresh excavations of the Memnoninm at Thebes, in obtaining a complete ground-plan of this famous temple. He also discovered the tomb of Ramnes-Sesoatris in Babel-Meluk, and measured and delineated the principal temple anew with greater exactness than had hitherto been done. The expedition returned in the early part of 1846, having brought or transmitted the greater part of the valuable and curious objects of Egyptian art which are now in the new museum at Berlin. While in Egypt he wrote 'Bride sues eEgypten, eEthiopicn, und der Halbinsel des Sinai,' which were pub lished at Berlin, and contain lively narratives of his proceedings and discoveries. In 1846 he issued a short account of his journey from Thebes to the peninsula of Sinai, which he had made in 1845, from March 4th to April 14th. In 1849 appeared 'Die Chronologie der /Egypter,' vol. i. In the meantime he had been labouring on his great work, 'The Monuments of Egypt and Ethiopia' (' Der Denkmalern an* zEgypten and tEthiopien,' &c.), magnificently printed in elephant folio, at the expense of the King of Prussia. It was commenced in 1819, and was published in parts, of which 75 have been published (Dec. 1856), and the whole is expected to be completed in about 100 parts. In 1851 he printed his essay' Ueber den ersten Agyptischen, Gfitterkreis, und seine geschichtlichc-mytho]ogische Entatehung; ' in 1853 another, ' Usher die 12te lEgyptische Koniga-Dynastie; ' in 1853 also a work, Lieber einige Ergebnisse fiir die Kenntniss der Ptole entiergeschiehte;' and in 1855 another, ' Ueber eine Hieroglyphische Inschrift am Tempel von Edfn,' all in 4to, with plates. The Letters from Egypt have been translated into English.