About two centuries later the Methodies were divided into numerous sects, as the doctrines of particular physicians became more generally received. The chief of these sects were the Pneumatic, and the Eclectic& The former are represented by their most eminent writer, Aretseus [Anntsce, in &ors. Div.], who lived in the reign of Vespasian, and the chief points of their doctrines are detailed in his life. Of the Eclectics, the most celebrated was Arehigcner3, of Apamea, who prac tised at Rome hi the time of Trajan. But the most remarkable writer of this age was C,claus, in whose work, De Medicina, the progress and condition of medicine previously to and during his life are amply detailed. [Cateus, in Ilmo. Div.] Ho was the first native of Rome who is known to have studied medicine, and the only one who did so with success. In his time medicine, which, as a science, might be said to have had Its origin with Hippocrates, had made considerable pro gress; the several sects of its professors differed rather in their pre tensions than in any Important point of knowledge ; the philosophical learning, which some sought and others despised, was almost entirely hypothetical, and had relation only to the doctrines of the mutual actions of imaginary atoms, elements, and spirits, hut all had been alike engaged in the study of practical medicine, and their accumulated experience had by this time formed a very considerable amount of useful knowledge.
The individual whose history forms the next chief epoch in the history of medicine is Galen ; but it will be unnecessary to repeat what has already been said of his doctrines and practice. [(lairs, in 13too. Dir.] For a long time after his death physicians were chiefly occupied in commenting on his works, and imitating, as closely as they could, his practice. His writings were regarded as ultimate authority, and everything that seemed opposed to them was at once rejected. From the time of Galen to the 7th century tho only names of any repute (and theirs is but small) are Sextus Empirieus, Oribasius, Alexander Trallianus, and Paulus of "Egina ; and after the death of the last of these, no medical work of the least merit was published in the Greek language.
From the 7th to the 12th century the only nation in which medicine made any progress, or was even prevented from retrograding, was the Arabian. It appears that on the conquest of Alexandria some books were saved from the burning of its magnificent library, and that among them were the writings of Hippocrates and Galen. The latter were soon translated into Arabic and diligently studied; and all the earliest Arabian works on medicine, as those of Ahrun in the 8th, and Serapion in the 9th century, are little more than transcripts of these of Galen. One of the most illustrious of the Arabian school was Rhazes [RuxzEs, in Brno. Div.], who was born in the 9th century, and whose works contain many original observations, of which the most remarkable relate to some important diseases, unknown to, or at least not described by former writers, as smallpox and measles. In those parts of his
writings which relate to pharmacy Rhazes describes some of the earliest of what are called chemical remedies, which are doubtless suggested by the recent origin of the systematic practice of chemistry among his countrymen. After Rhazes was Ali-Abbas, and after him Avicenna 'AVICENNA, in BIOG. Div.], who attained the highest repute of all. He was born in 980, and has left voluminous writings, which however appear to show that his fame is deserved only when he is placed in comparison with his contemporaries. Neither Avicenna nor the later writers, lime and Albncasis, contributed anything of importance to the progress of medicine. Avenzear and Averroes were disciples of the Arabian school, and, though natives of Spain, wrote in the Arabic language. The former was the preceptor of the latter, and lived in the Ilth century, and his works are among the few that exhibit even slight departures from the doctrines of Galen. The circumstances which chiefly mark the period of the Arabian school of medicine are, the more correct description of several diseases, the first records of some new and imiertant ones, and the introduction of several valuable remedies, both from the vegetable productions of the tropical and oriental countries, and from the chemical processes which were then first brought into general use. But the physicians adhered too care fully to the doctrines of Galen to make much progress in their science ; and anatomy, physiology, and pathology appear to have been almost entirely neglected.
From the decline of the Arabian school in the 12th century to the beginning of the 15th, the history of medicine presents few circum stances of interest. The dissection of the human body was first pub licly practised by Mondini at Bologna, about the year 1315; and at about the same time lived Gilbert, the first English writer on medicine who acquired any repute. Between the 12th and 15th centuries several of the most important universities were founded, with a school of medicine attached to each : that of Salerno was established in the 12th century, that of Montpelier in the 13th, those of Bologna, Vienna, and Paris in the 14th, and in the 15th those of Rome, Padua, Pavia, and several other cities in Italy. By means of these, and by the im petus which, with all other sciences, it received from the invention of printing, medicine again commenced a forward course. In this country it derived the greatest advantages from Linacre [Lorecnn, in Bioo. Div.] and the establishment of the College of Physicians, to whose members, in succeeding years, several of the most brilliant discoveries are due.