In the 15th century the sect of chemical physicians arose, and their doctrines, under the bold advocacy of Paracelsus, who publicly burnt the writings of Galen, obtained considerable credit and numerous sup porters. Their main assertion was that the operations of the living body are entirely governed by the same chemical laws as obtain in inorganic matter ; and the works of all the writers of the 15th century are filled with arguments in support either of this doctrine or of the more ancient tenets of Galen. The Galenists were of eourso the more learned party, who were well versed in the ancient books • while the chemists were chiefly those who were mom practically skilled in the arts of that newly discovered science. Neither party can be said to have much advanced the knowledge of medicine; but in the middle of the 16th century the most important improvement commenced in the diligent and accurate stndy of anatomy by Vesalius [VEsarnrs, in Bloc. Div.], who, disregarding the general obloquy which he incurred, carefully studied the structure of the most important pdrts of the human body.
From the time of Vesalius, the study of anatomy was diligently pursued, and in the early of the 17th century was rewarded by several of the most interesting and important discoveries; as that of the circulation by Harvey [HARVEY, in Bioo. Div.], of the absorbents by Axellius, of the process of respiration by Malpighi [MALPIGHI, in Broo. Dry], and numerous others. Among the most celebrated men of the 17th century, may be enumerated Glisson, Bartholin, Rudbeek, Fabricius, Hooke, Sylvius, Riolanue, Fallopius, and Bellini. All of them were employed in the diligent pursuit of anatomical and physiological knowledge; and, somewhat later, Sydenham [SYDENUAM, in Moo. Div.] again introduced a truly Hippocratic mode of obser vation of the phenomena of disease in its symptoms, causes, and &recta, and in the influence of remedies upon it. By the combined efforts of the anatomists and the practical physicians, medicine in this century made the most remarkable progress, although it was in some measure checked by the attempted application of the laws of mechanics (then, from the discoveries of Newton and others, the dominant science) to the explanation of all the phenomena of the living body. The iatro mathematicians, as those who supporta' this theory were called, were long engaged with the chemists, who had already conquered the Galenists ; and to these rival sects was then added that of the Vitalists, founded by Van Helmont [HELMONT, VAN, in B100. Div.], which at last obtained complete ascendancy over both. The Vitalists held that there is in the living body a principle (upon which different members of the sect conferred different hypothetical appellations) which presides over and directs all the processes of the living body, and is directly opposed to the influence of chemical and mechanical agents. Stahl,
Hoffmann, and Boerhaave were of this school, though each considerably modified the opinions of its founder.
Among the pupils of Boerhaave were Van Swieten and Haller. [HALLER, in Bloc. Div.] The former adopted the hypothetical spirit of the school too closely to add much of real value to medical science ; but the latter may be fairly considered to have done more for it than any other single individual. Before the time of Haller, the cases of Harvey, Glisson, Malpighi, and others who devoted themselves to the simple observation of facts and the evident deductions from them, were exceptional ; hut since his time, the exceptions have rather been those who, with a comparative neglect of observation, have endeavoured only to find or support some theory by which all the phenomena they met with might seem explained. Haller's contemporary Cullen [CULLEN, in Broo. Div.], though he yielded much more to theory, was of emiuent service in the study of practical medicine ; and his opponent Brown is acknowledged to have introduced many useful lessons in the same branch of the study.
With the gradual oblivion of the hypotheses of both Cullen and Brown, the theoretical study of medicine may be considered to have entirely ceased, and in the present day we may certainly he said to be without any general medical theory. From the time of Haller, medicine has acquired more and more nearly the character of a science of simple observation and the patient investigation of facts. Its history would therefore consist of little more than a recital of succes sive diseeverieht, each perhaps small when compared' with the vast amount of knowledge still unexplored, yet altogether so numerous that even a sketch of them could not be here introduced. The reader must therefore be referred to the several articles on the different branches of medicine and its collateral sciences, and to the lives [Brae. Div.] of those who have been moat conspicuous for their discoveries.
bIEDITATIO FUGAE WARRANT, in the law of Scotland, is a writ by which a debtor, supposed to be about to make his escape from the country, is arrested and kept in custody until he pay the debt, or find security to pay it if he shall be judicially found liable to do so. It may be granted by any judge having jurisdiction in questions of debtor and creditor, as by a sheriff, or the magistrates of a burgh. When granted by a sheriff, it has the advantage that it may he executed in any part of Scotland, whether without or within the jurisdiction of the sheriff who grants it.