PERTHSHIRE, a central connty in Scotland, bounded N. by the counties of Inverness and Aberdeen ; E. by Forfarshire; S.E. by Fife shire, the Frith of Tay, and Kinross-shire • S. by Clackmannan and Stirling shires; S.W.by Stirling and Dumbarton shires; W. by Argyle shire; and N.W. by Inverness-shire. The form of the county is compact ; but a small detached portion of it lies on the northern shore of the Frith of Forth, between the shires of Fife and Clackmannan, and another small detached part is surrounded by Stirlingshire; while a small detached portion of Forfarshire is included iu the bouu daries of Perthshire. It extends from east to west 70 miles, from north to south 66 miles; and its area is 2S35 square miles, or 1,814,063 acres, of which abont 50 square miles are covered with water. The county lies between 56° 2' and 56° 57' N. lat., 3° 2' and 4'50' W. long. The population of the county in 1841 was 137,457; in 1851 it was 138,660. For parliamentary purposes part of the county is annexed to Clackmannan and Kinross. Perthshire returns one member to the Imperial Parliament.
Surface, Ilydrography, and Consmunicationa—The whole of the county, except in the immediate vicinity of Perth, is hilly, if not mountainous. The Ochill Hills traverse the south-eastern part between the Forth and the Tay. The Grampians form the northern and north-western boundary of the county, separating it from Aberdeen and Inverness-shires. Scarcsocb (3390 feet), and Bruoch Cerruvan are in this part of the range. The western half of the county is overspread by the mountains of the Western Highlande, among which are Ben Veou, Ben Ledi (2S63 feet), Ben Vorlich (3300 feet), Ben More (3900 feet), Ben Lowers (3948 feet), and Schihallien or Schiehallion (3513 feet). Cairn Gower in the Ben y Gloe Mountains in Athol Forest, south of the Grampian+, has an elevation of 3690 feet. The Sidlaw Hills are on the east aide of the county near Forfarshire ; Dunsinene Hill is 1084 feet above the level of the sea. Upon its oval and conical summit Macbeth is said to have erected his castle. Birnam Bill, near Dunkeld, is 1300 feet high.
These mountainous districts are intersected by long winding narrow vales, or 'glens,' through which the streams flow, or by straha: or wider valleys. Strathallen, in the south, separates the °chills from
the Western Highlands; Stratbearn extends across the centre of the county from west to east; Strath Tay, and lower down Strathmore (which extends through Forfsrshire), form the valley of the Tay ; and Strati' Airdle is in the north-east of the county. In the north are Glen Shea and Glen Beg, Olen Fernal, Olen Tilt [Amor.), Glen Bruer, and Glen Erochkie. In the west are Glen Lyon, Olen Lochy, Glen Dochart, Glen Falloch, and Glen Artney.
This county is almost entirely comprehended In the basin of the Tay. A small portion on the south-west side is drained by the streams which flow into Loch Lomond; the district of 3Ienteith in the south is Included in the basin of the Forth.
The Tay rises in • small loch on the border of Argyleshire, and flows east and east-by-north 20 miles, through Loch Dochart into Loch Tay. In this part of its course it is known as the Dochart. Just before it enters Loch Tay it is joined by the Lochie, which rises a little to the north of Loch Dochart, and has a circuitous course of about 16 miles. Loch Tay is a long narrow lake embosomed in moun tains, having Ben Lowers near its north-western shore; its length from south-west to north-east Is about 14 miles; Its average breadth is about one mile. The banks of the lake are steep and shelving, and the depth of water is supposed to be In some parts not less than 600 feet. It is fed by several mountain streams, and abound. with flab; its enrface is at times agitated in a violent and uncommon manner. From the north-eastern or lower end of Loch Tay, the river Tay issues, and flows through Strath Tay. It receive' several tributaries, and has a very winding course, extending in all to about 105 miles. Just above Perth, the Tay receives the Almond, and several miles below it the Earn, both on the right bank. The Tay is computed to send to the sea • greater volume of water than any other river of Great Britain. It is navigable to Perth for vessels of 100 tens. [Dustrez.] There is a bar at the month, and the navigation is rather difficult, partly from the sand-banks in its channel, and partly from the strength of the tides.