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# Predicables

## aristotles, species, aristotle, explanation, example and porphyry

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PREDICABLES. The term predicable (Kara-yopith,prodicabile) is applied in logic to general names, considered as capable of being the predicates of prdpositions. (On Predication, see ORGANON.] The classes of predicables usually recognised by logicians are five, namely, 1, Genus; 2, Species ; 3, Differentia; 4, Proprium ; 5, Accidens, which Latin names are translated from the Greek, 1, yivor ; 2, silos ; 3, Suupopci; 4, f3cov ' • 5, avAl3e13nsds.

The five-fold classification of the predicables does not occur in Aristotle's Organon,' nor in any other of his extant writings ; and it probably did not occur in any of his lost writings. The word is often used by Aristotle to signify a class : and the word silos in the sense of a logical species. The word aoul3e13nubs (or icarri aoul3eflnubs) is often used by Aristotle to signify that which is contingent or acci dental, in opposition to that which is necessary (Zwayscaiov).

The earliest work in which the received classification of the predi cables occurs, is an Introduction! to Aristotle's Categories, written by Porphyry of Tyre, the well-known heathen philosopher of the 3rd century (born 233 A.D.) and the author of other extant works. (Printed in Bekker'e Aristotle, vol. iv., p. 1-6). Porphyry states, at the outset of this treatise, that a knowledge of the five predicables is necessary for the proper explanation of Aristotle's work on the categories ; and he therefore addresses to a certain Chrysaorius a popular account of them, derived from the ancient philosophers, especially the Peripatetics.

The five predicables (al adore cpcovaf, as they were originally styled) are not however mentioned in Aristotle's work on the categories, as is incorrectly stated in Hermeias, ib., p. 10, b. 14 ; and it is probable that the "ancient philosophers" alluded to by Porphyry were of con siderably later date than Aristotle. An abridgment of Porphyry's treatise on the predicables, by Michael Psellus, of Constantinople, who lived in the 11th century, has also been preserved ; and it is reprinted in the beginning of the small Oxford edition of Excerpts from Aristotle's Organon ' (Clarendon press, 1802).

From this treatise of Porphyry the classification and explanation of the predicables have passed into the various treatises of the Aristotelian logic, and have been repeated in them with some variations and de velopments, but with little substantial change up to the present day (Whately's Logic,' part i.) The explanation of the predicables which is usually given in treatises on Ingle I. somewhat infected with realism ; that is to say, It itnplica that there is something in nature, beside. individual things, corn,. spending with general notions. On this point are Mansell's 'Alitrick' (I 5 srol Appendix A). Or if not, the least that can be mid Is that theiwideflintions have an oxtralogleal relation to InotoPhYoka.

Thu name of any proposed Liam may be calkd the species; for ex. ample, man.

The to of tiny class Including this ohms is caned a genus, with reference to the specks fur example, animal, with reference to man.

Were/din is the name of any attribute which belongs universally to the spode., mid to it alone is the gran& For example, the power of ameliorating his condition in succeasivo generations, and the power of using language, as belonging to man. A logical de finition Is composed of the genus surd the diferestio; thus, according to the explanation of differentia which has boon just Riven, man would bo defined logically by saying that he is "an animal which 11011401111011 010 power of using Lingua/IT: Proprtoryi is the nallie of any attribute) which belongs to the species, and to it atom For example the power of speech, as belonging to Man.

ceidess is the name of any attribute which inny or may not belong to any individual of the specks. For example, the colour of the skin In man.

Wu might fill whims with the views which have been taken of the proprinni awl 'reddens.

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