RYE-GRASS, sometimes called Ray-Grass, is one of the most com mon of the artificial grasses; it is of the family of the &minas of the genus Miura. There are several varieties, some annual and others perennial, some producing a strong juicy grass, and others a small diminutive plant. These varieties arise chiefly from difference of soil, climate, and cultivation. In the convertible system of husbandry, rye-grass performs a very essential part, especially the perennial sort, which, mixed with different varieties of clover and other grass-seeds, produces a rich and close herbage, which may be either mown for hay or depastured. In the course of two or three years the land is so much recniited by the extension of the roots, and by the dung and urine of the animals, that, without dung from the yard, it will produce one or two very good crops. When clover is sown to remain only one year, the annual variety of rye-grass is frequently sown with it. It adds to the weight of the hay, and the stems of the rye-grass are a good corrective to the richness of the clover, when they are given to horses in a green state; but when the hay is intended for the London market, or that of any of the great mercantile towns, the tradesmen and carmen prefer the pure clover hay, thinking it more nutritious. Those who cultivate their land on the Norfolk system have a prejudice against rye-grass, as being unfavourable to the succeeding crop of wheat. Accordingly, when they have a layer of rye-grass, instead of clover (because the clover, having been too often repeated, fails in tiro end), they often take peas or beans between the rye-grass and the wheat. This accords with theory ; f u• when the rye-grass completes its fructification, even if the seed is not ripe, it has a deteriorating effect on the soil similar to that of a white crop, and therefore a legu minous crop should succeed it.
Different varieties of rye-grass hare been recommended at various times ; one which goes by the name of Pare?, ryelmass has kept he reputation as a perennial grass for a lung time. The /Wien rye !Dam, well known in the south of France, in Switzerland, and in Oermany, is a native of Lombardy, where It grows most luxuriantly and rapidly by means of irrigation. There Is no grass which so soon forms a water-meadow ; and it boars well the cold and wet winters of Britain. On rich moist land it grows most rapidly and luxuriantly. It
will bear several cuttings in am/son. Those who have paid attention to the cultivation of rye-grass think highly of it. It grows much more rapidly in spring than any other glass, and is so much relished by cattle, that they scarcely allow a single stem to spring up. A small space in a layer being sown with Italian rye-grass, may be distinguished in the pasture byj its superior green colour and its very close pile ; and the cattle will always be found there, as long as there is the least bite for them. It may be advantageously sown in auturnu with the Trifolinm inearnatum, and together they will give much early green food in spring. it may be a question whether this is preferable to sowing rye; but it affords a variety, and on some soda may produce earlier and more abundant feed for lambs. When Italian rye-grass is sown by itself, and allowed to go to seed, it becomes thin after the first year. from many of the plants dying off: it may therefore be prudent to mix sonic other kiwis of grosses with it, which will supply its place where it is worn out. It is a most excellent practice to sow rye-grass on old meadows and pastures, at the time when they are recruited with compost or earth. If they are well harrowed or scarified, and the rye-grass be sown before the roller goes over them, the succeeding crop of hay will be much increased in quantity and improved in quality. On water-meadows, which require renovation, this grass is invaluable, being early, rapid in growth, and very abundant when irrigated. We have seen hay made in July from a newly-made water-meadow sown with Italian rye-grass in March. This was at Mr. De Fellenberg's, at Hofwyl, near Berne, in Switzerland. No plant will more fully use abundant dressings of manure than Italian rye-grass. If richly manured and irrigated after each cutting it will yield 18 to 20 tons of green food per acre, three or four times in the year. When sown by itself 3 bushels per acre are sown broadcast in August or September, and the next year the crop will be in full bearing. A first or second cutting may be taken in the following year, and being then ploughed down a crop of late turnips or rape may be taken pre vious to a succeeding spring-sown corn crop.