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Andscape

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ANDSCAPE photography is the most healthful, instructive.

4 inspiring and delightful branch of the beautiful art. It leads one into the wholesome air of the country, to die lakes, sea-shore and the mountains, to quiet dales and laughing streams, to early morning tramps; teaches him to study nature and observe her varying moods ; reveals to him visions of the picturesque and the beautiful, that without this incentive would have remained to him unseen.

There is no royal road for the landscape photographer; patient study and intelligent observation are constantly required. He must study pictures that attract him, to see wherein lies their charm. The finest camera and the highest priced lens are not the essential things, but the knowledge how to use them. A picture by one of our great painters, a modest, quiet man of rare insight, depicts a meeting of two hunters ; one, a sportsman with his complete and elegant outfit, with. no game, is showing his expensive breech-loader to the other, a lank, seedy countryman, with nothing about him to indicate a hunter, but an old, muzzle loading, single-barrelled gun, and a score or more of ducks. And our fine sportsman seems to sigh as he says, " why can't I get them ?" The introduction of figures and of animals in landscape is usually desirable, but they should never be made too prominent. There should be a fitness about the figures, they should look as if they belonged in the picture. Naturally therefore, it would be a defect to have them exactly in focus, or be rendered with fine details, unless the object is to take the picture of the group of people or of the animals; in which case the landscape is sacrificed to the portraiture. Many landscape views are failures, through the introduction of people in the immediate foreground, staring at the camera as if they had rushed in where they did not belong and were not wanted, to " get their pictures taken." Those who have tried to take views of charming bits of scenery in our pub lic parks, know what a desire some people seem to have to get into the view; and stop where they are entirely out of place.

For pictorial effect all figures should appear unconscious of anything like posing.

The chief feature in the landscape should not be placed in the center of the plate, nor should the picture seem to divide itself into two equal parts. The point of view must therefore be care fully selected, setting up the camera in different places to try to get the best effect.

A small stream in the northern part of Illinois is often ex plored by those summering in its vicinity, who have heard of its varied and picturesque scenes. A young lad took his little skiff one July day, with a lunch and a twelve dollar camera, and spent the whole day on this stream, rowing back and forth sixteen or twenty miles. He had six plates with him, and when he returned at night, it was a matter of some surprise that he had only made three exposures. He set up his camera to take others, but some thing about the light or the shadow did not suit him, and he seemed content with what he had secured. He did his own developing, and the result was three beautiful pictures, two a quarter size and one a 5 x 8. A week later, two older amateurs, of large experience, with fine cameras and Dallmeyer lenses, spent a forenoon on the the same stream and took a dozen or more views. But none of them were, as pictures, quite equal to those made by the lad with his cheap lens. They all saw the same scenes, but the younger had the more patience, and perhaps the faculty not given to all, of discovering the beautiful in common things. The larger of. these pictures we have used as an illustration in the chapter on " Ornamental Photography." In general, the sun should not be directly behind the camera, but rather at one side, not being allowed, of course, to shine into the lens. It is not necessary that the sun should be up at all— very charming views can be obtained in the early, bright morn ings of spring, before sunrise.

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