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Chemicals

soda, bottle, bottles, ounces, ounce, oz and hypo

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CHEMICALS.

The chemicals which we should recommend for the beginner are: Sulphite soda crystals, one lb.

Carbonate soda crystals, pure, one or two lbs.

Powdered borax, one-half lb. Hyposulphite soda, five or ten lbs. Bromide potassium, one oz.

H. & F. hydrochinon, one oz. Carbonate potash, one-half lb. Phosphate soda, one-half lb. Caustic soda sticks, one oz. One lb. concentrated ammonia.

Chloride gold and sodium, 30 grain vial.

Nitric acid, C. P., one lb. Nitrate silver crystals, one oz.

Ferricyanide potassium, two ozs. (Red prussiate of potash). Citrate iron and ammonia, 2 ozs.

Chloride ammonium, 4 ozs. Meta bisulphite potash, one oz. Bisulphite soda, 4 ozs.

Yellow prussiate potash, 4 ozs.

The above are all the chemicals that will be required in devel oping, fixing and toning, and in making blue and silver printing paper. To these might be added, as the beginner will wish to try developing with that, one oz. pyrogallic acid.

All of the above, with the exception of hyposulphite soda, should be either " pure " or " chemically pure," which is usually designated on packages as C. P. He should also procure about one-half dozen 16 oz. bottles with glass stoppers; one-half dozen gall. bottles with rubber corks; one gallon bottle for hypo.

Some scales that will weigh grains.

The sulphite soda crystals, as well as the "ammonia, should be kept in a cool and dry place, and tightly corked, as they both deteriorate unless carefully preserved. The ammonia bottle must have a glass stopper, He will also need certainly one glass graduate, a four ounce, and it will be a great convenience to have also s number of other sizes, a minim holding sixty drops, or one dram, a one ounce, two ounces, and either an eight or a sixteen ounce. These are marked in drams and ounces, eight drams to the ounce.

Also, one or more glass trays of the proper size for developing the plates, and one or two japanned trays for fixing. Small trays for 4x5 plates will always be found convenient, as requiring less solution for developing plates of that size or smaller.

It will.be a great convenience and save much time if the above bottles are graduated as soon as they have been washed clean.

To graduate them, take a strip of white paper about one-half inch wide and paste it on the side of the bottle reaching from the bottom to the top. When this is dry (we will say that it is a gallon bottle for the fixer hypo.) pour into the bottle 8 ounces of water, and when it is perfectly still mark the level of the water on the paper with a pencil and against that mark 8 ounces; then pour in another eight ounces, and mark that level, and so on until the bottle is filled. The marks on the paper from bottom to the top read 8, 16, 24, and so on to 128 ounces, or more, if the bottle holds a little over a gallon. The advantage of thus marking the bottles will be seen when we prepare our solution of hyposulphite soda in this bottle. In place of using the strip of paper, the markings may be laid directly on the glass with black varnish, applied with a fine-pointed brush. This has the advantage over paper that it will not wash off. All of the smaller bottles shohld be marked in the same way, marking a 16 ounce bottle in ounces.

Weigh out two pounds hyposulphite soda, and one ounce bisulphite soda, and pour it into the graduated gallon bottle; then pour fresh water into the bottle until it rises to the 96 ounce mark. This when dissolved will give a solution of hypo. in the proportion of one ounce hypo. to three ounces water. This is stronger than is usually used for a fixer, and should be reduced when wanted, taking one part hypo. and one part water, which reduces it for the fixer to the proportion of one to six. The bisulphite of soda is added to keep the solution clear while in use.

As there are generally plenty of old bottles around a house, it will be a good plan to take one or two holding a quart, and after thoroughly cleaning them, fill them half full with the above hypo. solution, filtering it as described at the close of this chap ter, and then filling the bottles with water. These bottles should then be labeled: Hypo. filtered for use.

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