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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

A Ntillstonv Ai I Lis
A. Ntillstonv-ai I Lis. The One-stone Mill, Driven By Water Or Wind, Proved A Great Advance Over The Mosaic Mealing-mortars And Mills Which Had Been Used For Centuries. The Time Had Not Come For Developing And Employing The Full Mill-power Of Running Streams Or Forceful Winds, Or The Wonderful Energy ...

Administration Of Justice
Administration Of Justice. In Europe, As In Asia, From The Beginning Of The Middle Ages, As In The Ancient World, The Various Political Institutions Have Had A History Rather Than A Development. Civilization Has Frequently Rather Endured Than Developed Them. We May Take It For Granted That These Institutions, So ...

African Semites
African Semites. General Shall Begin Their Survey In The West And North. The African Semites Include— (i) The Are A Collection Of Tribes Whose Extreme Out Posts Were Formerly Occupied By The Guanches, Inhabitants Of The Canary Islands, Who Have Been Extirpated By The Spaniards. The Guanches Were Above Middle ...

Agriculture
Agriculture. Charlemagne May Be Said To Have Introduced Agriculture And The Industrial Arts North Of The Alps. He Was The First To Apply Rational Methods Not Only To Political, Military, Financial, And Legal Affairs, But Also To The Formation Of The Character And To The Development Of The Resources Of ...

Aiealing Implements Operated Ey
Aiealing Implements Operated Ey Hand. From The Earliest Historic Periods To The Present, The Edible Grains Have Been Ground Between Two Stones. The Original Grinding Implement Was A Fixed Stone, In A Hollowed-out Portion Of Which The Grain Was Pounded With A Boulder In The Hand. If Such A Crude ...

American Painters In The
American Painters In The Eighteenth Century. The Condition Of The Colonies Was Such During This Period That One Is Not Surprised To Find That Little Was Then Done In America Toward Pro Moting The Progress Of The Fine Arts. Two Of The Most Prominent Paint Ers Born In America In ...

And Ventilating Apparatus
And Ventilating Apparatus. The Objects Named In The Heading Take Rank Among The Most Important In The Whole Domain Of Building Construction, And Their Consideration In Volves Peculiar Difficulties, As It Must Involve Other Departments Of Science. This Treatise Will Be Restricted, However, Particularly Iu Reg-ard To The Apparatus For ...

And The Netherlands
And The Netherlands. Albrecht Early Numbers Of Plate 36 (figs. 1-5) Afford Also An Opportunity For Comparing German With Italian Art. On Plate 29 We Had The Triumph Of Death From The Campo Santo At Pisa—a Fresco-painting On A Large Scale, A Rich And Varied Composition. Here, In Small Engravings, ...

Appliances For Tiie Transmission
Appliances For Tiie Transmission Or Power. A Complete Machine Or Set Of Machines Is Made Up Of Three Parts: (1) The Prime Mover Or Motor, Which Receives Its Motion And Force From A Natural Source, As From Animals, Water, Wind, Or Steam; (2) Transmitting Appliances, Such As Ropes, Chains, Belts, ...

Application Of Color To
Application Of Color To Architecture. Polychromy Is The Term Applied In The History Of Art To The Ornamenta Tion Of Sculptured And Architectural Works By Means Of Varied Colors. In Buildings These Colors Were Made To Cover Both Flat Spaces And Archi Tectural Details, While In Statues Or Individual Portions ...

Applied Mechanics
Applied Mechanics. The Various Applications Of The Natural Forces To The Requirements Of Man Are Included Under The General Term Of Technics, Which Is Divided Into Two Main Subdivisions—namely, Chemical Technics And Mechanical Technics. While It Is The Province Of Agriculture And Of Forestry, As 1 As Of Mining, To ...

Archaeology Of The Area
Archaeology Of The Area Of The Andean Nations. In The Valleys Of The Andes, On The Lofty Plateaus Which Support Their Highest Peaks, And On The Western Slopes Which Descend To The Tropical Shores Of The Pacific, The First Explorers Came Upon Nations Of A High Degree Of Culture And ...

Architecture
Architecture. Monastic Dwelling In Those Regions Which We Have Just Been Considering Also Derived Its Form From Roman Models. A Remarkable Plan Of The Cloister Of St. Gall, Which Was Erected During The Carlovingian Period, Has Descended To Our Day: This Plan, Which Is Represented On A Reduced Scale On ...

Architecture Of The American
Architecture Of The American Aborigines. The Descent And The Immigration Of The Aborigines Of The American Continent, And The Investigation Of Its Oldest Culture, Have Exer Cised Science Scarcely To A Less Extent Than Similar Questions Con Cerning The Prehistoric Peoples Of Europe. This, At Least, Seems Certain —that Even ...

Architecture Of The United
Architecture Of The United States And Canada. The Architecture Of The New World Is An Echo Of That Of The West Of When The Great Continent Was Discovered, The Renaissance Was In The Fulness Of Its Power, But The Growth Of The New Colonies Was Too Slow To Permit Of ...

Arcileology Of The Area
Arcileology Of The Area Of Mexico And Central America. Only The Slightest Relations Have Ever Been Observed Between The Ancient Art Of Any Portion Of The United States And That Of Mexico And Central America. We Have Noted (p. So) The Singular Resemblance Be Tween Some Of The Designs On ...

Armorial Bearings And Coats
Armorial Bearings And Coats Of Arms. Our Plates 5o And 51 Are Devoted To This Subject. If These Symbols Had No Other Purpose Than To Designate The Ruling Class Or To Distinguish Its Members, We Might Indeed Omit Their Consideration In This History Of Culture; But Upon A Closer Scrutiny ...

Arrostation
Arrostation. While The Plates Devoted To The Subject Of Locomotion Represent Vehicles That Have Been Proved Upon The Touchstone Of Practical Application, Plates 6o And 61 Illustrate Those Inventions Xvhich, Regarding Their Mode Of Action As Motive Carriag-es, Have Thus Far Achieved Only Indifferent Success. The Ascent Of Balloons And ...

Art Tn Stone
Art Tn Stone. As Has Been Observed Above, The West Indies Yield No Specimens Of Palmolithic Implements. Indeed, Their Prevailing Types Of Stone Weapons And Utensils Are Singularly Fine In Workmanship. Sonic Antiquaries Go So Far As To Say That The Specimens From That Locality Are Of A More Elaborate ...

Art In Stone
Art In Stone. The Objects Of The Age Of Stone Were Adapted To Conditions Of Social Life So Widely Different From Our Own That The Antiquary Is Often Puzzled To Explain Their Uses. Sometimes Lie Must Apply To Them Provisional Names, Awaiting A Future Identification. Hence The Nomenclature Of The ...

Articulate Speech
Articulate Speech. From The Above We Have Seen That Gesture And Grimace On The One Hand, And Inarticulate Cries On The Other, Make Up Very Effective Means Of Communication, And That The Latter Is In Some Respects A More Efficient, And Therefore To This Day A More Popular, Avenue To ...

Asiatic Semites
Asiatic Semites. Divisions.—the Asiatic Semites Are Divided Into Two Great Branches— The Northern And The Southern. To The Southern Belong The Remnants Of The Ancient People, The Malira, Achdam, Etc. ; Furthermore, The Hingariles, The South Arabians Or Joktauides, Whose Language, The Himyaritic, Now Extinct, Bears The Closest Relation To ...

Assyrian Painting
Assyrian Painting. Painting In Assyria, As In Egypt, Was Little More Than Illumination, And Was Employed Chiefly For Architectural Decoration. The Sculptured Bas-reliefs Were To A Certain Extent Enlivened With Color, And In Many Instances Enamelled Brick Or Painted Stucco Served As An Economical Sub Stitute For Relief. Arlislic Oitany.—as ...

Barbaric Period
Barbaric Period. The Romans Speak Of Numerous Nations, In Addition To Those That Have Been Already Described, With Whom They Had Come Into Hostile Or Friendly Contact, And Of Whose Existence, In Some Cases, We Should Otherwise Have Remained Ignorant. Representatives Of Such Nationalities Are Even Depicted On Monuments Or ...

And His First Home
Antiquity Of Man On Earth, And His First Home. Having Established The Probability That Man Is Of Only One Zoological Species, We May Next Proceed To Inquire When And Where He First Appeared On Earth. Not That It Necessarily Follows That He Appeared At One Place Only. The Unity Of ...