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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Dons
Don's Hung In Two Equal Widths And To The Opposite Side Posts Of Jambs Of The Frame Are Called Folding-doors, Or Double-margined, And They Are Necessarily Similar. They Are Most Frequently Used In The Interior Con Struction Of Dwellings And The Entrances Of Relatively Large Edifices. Partly For Ornamental Purposes, ...

Drainage And Irrigation
Drainage And Irrigation. The Object Of Drainage Is To Dry Swampy Or Low-lying Lands Which May Be Saturated Or Wholly Covered With Water, Or Which May Be Subject To Overflow. By This Means The Ends Of Agriculture Are Served By Winning For Cultivation The Lands Reclaimed; And There Is Also ...

Early Christian Architecture
Early Christian Architecture. With The Accession Of Constantine New Demands Were Made Upon Architecture; He Had Embraced Christianity, And Edifices For Pub Lic Worship Were To Be Constructed. As The Christian Church Is The Meeting-place For A Great Assembly, The Temple Furnished No Model For It. The Congregations Were Compelled ...

Early Christian Painting
Early Christian Painting. The Gloomy Passages Of The Catacombs Were The Birthplace Of Early Christian Painting—a Birthplace That, From A Merely Artistic Stand Point, Was Hardly Conducive To Ushering In A Vigorous And Magnif Icent Manhood. The First Christian Artists In The Second And Third Cen Turies Of Our Era ...

Early Christian And Byzantine
Early Christian And Byzantine Sculpture. The Beginnings Of Christian Sculpture Are So Interwoven With The Art Of The Roman Empire That From An Artistic Standpoint It Is Difficult To Mark The Dividing-line. In The Colossal Equestrian Statues Of Marble Or Of Bronze Which Each Emperor Erected For His Glorification There ...

Earthwork The Foundation
Earthwork.-the Foundation. In The Projection Of A Railroad-line Engineers Endeavor So To Utilize The Principle Of Compensation In The Moving Of The Rock And The Earth That The Material From The Cuttings Shall Furnish As Nearly As Possible The Amount Required To Form The Embankments. Earthzcork: Embankments And Earthwork, As ...

Effects On Population
Effects On Population. Some Writers Have Maintained That The Form Of Marriage In Vogue In A Nation Exerts An Influence On The Sex Of Children; That In Polygamy More Females, In Polyandry More Males, Are Born, And That Thus The Average Of Sexes In A Community Becomes Adapted To The ...

Egyptian Painting
Egyptian Painting. Painting, Like Egyptian Sculpture, Was Subordinate To Architecture. The Painter In Egypt Was Employed To Decorate The Walls And Ceilings Of Tombs And Temples, And To Give Brilliancy To Col Umns, Statues, And Bas-reliefs, As Well As To Mummy-cases And Funeral-steles. In This Way The Painter Worked In ...

Egyptian Sculpture
Egyptian Sculpture. The Tomb And The Temple Furnished The Egyptian Sculptor The Chief Field Of His Art. The Tomb Was Not A Grave Merely To Contain The Dust Of The Departed: It Was His Happy And Eternal Home. This Gave The Sculptor An Opportunity To Portray Upon The Walls Of ...

Eighteenth Century
Eighteenth Century. The Great Art Of The Renaissance In The Two Peninsulas, Italy And Spain, Had Culminated When The Eighteenth Century Arrived. Michel Angelo, Raphael, Da Vinci, Titian, Murillo, And Velasquez Were Dead, And There Were None Who Were Worthy To Tread In Their Footsteps And, Like Them, Enrich The ...

Embankments And Drains
Embankments And Drains. Prevent The Incursions Of The Sea As Well As Of Streams, Structures Called " Dykes " Or " Embankments " Are Built. The Height To Which Such Works Must Be Carried Will Depend Upon The Object They Are Designed To Serve. Dykes That Are To Protect The ...

England The Renaissance In
The Renaissance In France, England, Spain, And Germany. What Had Been The Condition Of Sculpture In The Other Countries Of Europe During The Period We Have Been Reviewing In Italy? It Is Easy To Perceive That Of The Two Currents Which Governed The Renaissance—the Classic And The Realistic—the Latter Would ...

English Painting In The
English Painting In The Eighteenth Century. While The Great Art-movement Of The Renaissance Had Been Producing A Multitude Of Painters And Sculptors On The Continent, In England But Little Had Been Accomplished To Show A Popular Sympathy With The Fine Arts. Architecture, It Is True, Both In The Gothic And ...

English Romanesque
English Romanesque. William, Who Conquered England, Took With Him To That Country His Norman Architects, Who Upon A New Soil Which Had Long Been Chris Tian, And On Which The Old Teutonic Culture Was Yet Preserved Alive, Inaugurated A New Epoch Of Architectural Development, But Still Under The Influence Of ...

English Sculpture In The
English Sculpture In The Eigiimenth Century. The Plastic Arts Of Great Britain Were Slow In Awakening. In The Ages When Gothic Architecture Was In Its Prime Native Artists Had Done Much In Decorative Sculpture In Wood, Stone, And Bronze For The Ornamentation Of Cathedrals And Tombs. But This Sort Of ...

English And Scandinavian Renaissance
English And Scandinavian Renaissance. The Popular Taste Of Scandinavia And England Accepted The Renais Sance Even Less Promptly Than Germany. There Was, Besides The National, A Farther-reaching Protestant Trait In The Efforts Made Against The Art-direc Tion So Zealously Cherished By The Catholic Church. England Scarcely Ac Cepted The Renaissance ...

Epoch Of Compound Implements
Epoch Of Compound Implements. Climate.—during This Epoch The Glacial Or Ice Age In Europe Reached Its Maximum. The Temperature Of France, Belgium, England, And Germany Was At Times Intensely Cold. But It Is Probable That At Various Periods The Ice Sheet Receded For A Time, Thus Allowing The Plains To ...

Epoch Of Early Lake Dwellings
Epoch Of' Early Lake-dwellings. Dl'coz'ery Of Lacustrine Remains.—in The Winter Of 1853-54 A Dis Covery Was Made In The Lake Of Zurich, Switzerland, Which Opened A New And Rich Field To Archmological Investigation. The Waters Of The Lake Being Unusually Low, Some Of The Residents Of The Banks Began Excavating ...

Epoch Of Megalithic Constructions
Epoch Of Megalithic Constructions And Kitchen-middens. Megalithic Are Now Inclined To Refer To The Commencement Of The Neolithic Period Certain Structures Of Immense Blocks Of Unhewn Stones Which Occur Abundantly In Western Europe. These Are The Menhirs (men, Stone, And Hie, High), Single Stones Set Up On End; The Cromlechs ...

Epoch Of Mound Burials
Epoch Of Mound-burials. We Have Seen (p. 42) That During The Paleolithic Period Man Appears To Have Paid No Honors Whatever To The Dead; And That In The Neolithic Period He Collected The Bodies Or Bones Of The Departed And Deposited Them In Rude But Massive Sarcophagi At The Cost ...

Etc For Spinning Machines
Machines For Preparing Wool, Etc. For Spinning. We Now Turn Our Attention To Thc Machines For The Preparation Of Wool Fibre, We Have First To Consider The Apparatus For Cleaning The Wool. Figures 2 And 3 (js/. 39) Represent What Are Known As Burring-machines, Which Serve To Free The Wool ...

Ethnography
Ethnography (from The Greek E(hoc, A People, And Ypcfic.sev, To Write) Also Studies Men In Communities ; But It Differs From Ethnology By Confining Itself To The Collection Of Facts And The Description Of Actual Relations And Customs. It Does Not Undertake To Explain Their Origin, Their Influence, And Their ...

European Architecture
European Architecture. While The Brandenburg Gate Was Building, The Storm Which Was The Necessary Result Of The High Tension Of The Eighteenth Century Burst In Paris. The French Revolution Had Overturned A World, And Desired To Set Up A New One. The Republic Linked Itself To The Ancient World, And ...