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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Music And Musical Instruments
Music And Musical Instruments. We Have Previously Referred (p. 94) To The Love Of Singing, Which Is As Much A Part Of The Nature Of Man As It Is Of Some Species Of Monkeys And Birds. To Increase The Effect Of The Tones Of The Voice Every Nation, No Matter ...

Neo Persians The Byzantines
The Byzantines, Neo-persians, And Scythians. The Life Of The Byzantines Was A Reflection Of That Of Rome. For, Though The Eastern Division Of The Roman Empire Survived By A Thousand Years The Overthrow Of The Western, It Can Hardly Be Said To Have Developed A Special Or Distinctive Culture. The ...

Neolithic Period
Neolithic Period. New Technical Processes Qf The Neolithic An Earlier Page (30) The Flaking And Chipping Of Stone Have Been Described—methods Which Were The Only Ones Known To Pristine Man. With The Introduction Of The Neolithic Period A Variety Of Novel Technical Procedures For Man Aging This Refractory Substance Were ...

Neolithic Period
Neolithic Period. Transition From The Paloolithic To The Neolithic Period.—as In Europe, So In North America, The Transition From The Paleolithic To The Neolithic Period Seems To Have Been Abrupt. At Least The Relics Of The Two Are Sharply Defined. This Is Well Illustrated, As We Have Already Said (p. ...

Nineteenth Century
Nineteenth Century. The Years Went By. Art Was At Its Apogee In England And France, And Was Awakening Once More In Germany, But The Genius Of Painting Made No Sign In Either Peninsula. Canova Had Initiated A Revival Of Sculpture In Italy, Yet No Painter Of Merit Appeared To Suggest ...

Other Ancient Remains
Other Ancient Remains. Ancient Mines Are Necessarily Rare, Being Con Fined To The Limited Deposits Of Native Metals, Quarries Worked By The Aborigines Are Numerous. These Were Excavated In Search Of A Variety Of Stones—time Slate And The Catlinite For Pipes, The Flint Or Bornstone For Arrow-heads, And The Steatite ...

Other Arts
Other Arts. Textile Peruvians Were Well Acquainted With Spinning And Weaving. Both Animal And Vegetable Tissues Were Employed, And Fine As Well As Coarse Stuffs Were In Common Use As Clothing. They Cultivated In The Warm Valleys Of The Coast Two Varieties Of Cot Ton—one Pure White, The Other Grayish. ...

Painters Of The Nineteenth
Painters Of The Nineteenth Century. After The Decadence Of The Great Schools Of The Netherlands Of Which Rembrandt, Rubens, And Ruysdael Were The Chief Exemplars, In No Other Country Did The Art Of Painting Languish As It Did There; But After The Wars Of Napoleon Were Ended And Peace Had ...

Painting During The Gothic
Painting During The Gothic Period. Up To The Period Under Consideration The Art Of Painting In Its Various Branches Had Been So Entirely Devoted To The Service Of Religion That It Had Acquired No Independent Position: Its Value Consisted In Its Portrayal To The Faithful Of The Mysteries And Doctrines ...

Painting And Glazing
Painting And Glazing. Labor Of The Painter Consists Chiefly In Applying An Im Pervious Covering Or Coating, Of Which Drying Oil Is The Base, To Buildings As Preventive Of Decay And For Purposes Of Ornament. In Outside Work The Chief Aim Should Be Protection From The Alternations Of Cold And ...

Painting Of The Romanesque
Painting Of The Romanesque Period. Although There Is Usually A Very Close Connection Between The Various Branches Of The Fine Arts, Their Fluctuations In Style, Revivals, And Decay Corresponding In Most Cases, The Condition Of Painting During The Entire Romanesque Period Is A Remarkable Exception To This Rule; For, While ...

Paleolithic Period In South
Tite, Paleolithic Period In South America. One Of The Most Interesting Contributions Of Arch=logy To American Ethnology Is That Of The Relics Of Man In South America In Very Old Qua Ternary, Possibly Interglacial, Deposits. This Proves That At An Extremely Remote Period Our Species Roamed Over Large Tracts Of ...

Paper
Paper. Extent Of Very Interesting Topic In The Archeology Of This Region Is The Manufacture Of Gaper And The Uses To Which It Was Applied. Nowhere Else On The Continent Was This Industry Developed. In Mexico Paper Was Produced In Large Quantities. According To The Tribute Rolls Of The Ancient ...

Parallelisni Between Nature And
Parallelisni Between Nature And Art. Fundamental Principle Of Art.—when We Compare With One Another Different Entire Series Of The Monuments Of Those Peoples And Periods Of Which We Can Truly Say That They Stand Nearest To The Ideal Of Culture, And Are Consequently The Most Perfect Extant, We Always Find ...

Persian Sculpture
Persian Sculpture. In Extent And Variety The Remains Of Ancient Persian Sculpture Fall Behind Those Of Assyria, And Far Behind Those Of Egypt. Besides The Facades Of The Royal Tombs And The Guarding Cherubim Of The Propylma, The Sculptor's Art Is Almost Exclusively Limited To The Carving Of Capitals And ...

Physico Dynamic Motors
Physico Dynamic Motors. The Animal, Including Man As Such, Represents The Motive Machines To To Be Considered In This Section. Strictly Considered, Their Treatment Would Naturally Include Descriptive Anatomy And Physiology. By A Comparative Analysis The Analogy Between The Working Animal And The Steam-engine Becomes Apparent. Like The Steam-engine, The ...

Plaster Work On Exterior Of
Plaster-work On Exterior Of Walls. In Plastering On Stone And Brick, Only One Coat Of Brown Mortar Is Used. In This Hair Is Not Considered Essential, But A Little More Sand Than Usual Is Added To The Mortar. The Wall Should Be Well Dampened Before The Ap Plication Is Made, ...

Poetry And Prose
Poetry And Prose. Poetry Has Been Called " The Native Language Of The Human Race." Certain It Is That No Nation Has Been Discovered So Brutish Or So Forlorn That It Did Not Stimulate Its Emotions And Cheer Its Hours Of Gloom With Song Of Some Kind. The Eskimos Of ...

Potters
Potter's% Technical Method And Quality.—all The Nahuatl Nations Were Skilful Potters, And Manufactured Vast Quantities Of Ware, As The Innumerable Fragments Scattered Over The Plains Remain To Testify. It Varied Greatly In Quality, That Which Was Designed For Common Domestic Use Being Coarse And Of Clay Mixed With Gravel And ...

Pottery
Pottery. Manufacture Of Pottery Is The Art Which Broadly Draws A Line Between Neolithic And Palzeolithic Man. Some Nations On The American Continent Did Not Possess It; But The Reason Of This Is Seen In Their Geological Surroundings, Which Did Not Offer Them The Quality Of Earth Suitable For The ...

Pottery_2
Pottery. In Some Respects The Ancient Peruvians Were The Most Noteworthy Pot Ters On The Continent. No Other Nation Presented Products With Such Diversity Of Forms, With Such Ingenious Combinations, With Such Faithful Imitations. (see Vol. I. /5/. 53.) These Are, Moreover, Extremely Abun Dant, And No Museum Of American ...

Pottery_3
Pottery. A Knowledge Of The Art Of Pottery Extended Throughout The Region We Are Describing, And Must Have Been Known From A Very Early Date. The Shell-mounds Of Evidently High Antiquity Which Abound On The Shores Of The Atlantic And The Caribbean Sea Contain, Along With Implements In Bone And ...

Prehistoric Archeology
Prehistoric Archeology. In A Time Which Is Within The Memory Of Men Not Yet Old The Study Of Prehistoric Arch,eology (from The Greek Dpra7k, Ancient, And A Discourse) Has Established Its Claim To Be Called A Science. Down To The Middle Of This Century The Rude Objects Of Ancient Art ...

Prehistoric Archeology Of The
Prehistoric Archeology Of The Western Hemisphere The Nomenclature Of The Arclueology Of The Western Hemisphere Is Closely Similar To That Of The Eastern. In Each The Development Of The Human Race Ran Parallel Courses. Beginning With A Rudely Formed, Simple Implement, This Was In Time Supplanted By Others Of Com ...

Prehistoric Archeology Of The
Prehistoric Archeology Of The Eastern Hemisphere Although Very Early Traces Of Man's Industry Have Been Discov Ered At Distant Points Throughout The Eastern Hemisphere—as, For Instance, Near The Cape Of Good Hope And In Egypt In Africa, In Southern India And In Japan In Asia, And In Europe In Very ...

Preparatory Machines And Spinning Machines
Preparatory Machines And Spinning-machines. Drawing.—the Cotton, Having Been Wrought By The Carding-engine Or Other Preparatory Machine So As To Form A Continuous Sliver Or Ribbon Of Sonic Consistency, Must Next Be Converted Into Drawings. To Obtain The Utmost Uniformity As Regards Thickness, Several Ribbons Or Slivers Are Combined By " ...

Present Relations Of Races
Present Relations Of Races. Obliteration Of Race Distinctions.—within The Historic Period The Rise Of Great Monarchies, Which Enabled Rulers To Prosecute Extensive Foreign Conquests, The Increase Of Commercial Intercourse, And The Enlarged Facil Ities Of Intercommunication Have Tended To The Obliteration Of Racial Dis Tinctions, Partly By Extensive Migrations, Partly ...

Presses
Presses. Presses Assume A Great Variety Of Forms In Different Mechanical Pro Cesses. They Arc Employed (i) To Compress Bodies Into Small Space, As In The Packing-press; (2) To Increase Their Dimensions In A Particular Direc Tion, As In The Roller-press Or Roller-mill; (3) To Divide Substances Either Wholly Or ...

Principles
Principles Or Construction. Planning. —the First Task To Be Performed In Connection With The Erec Tion Of A Building Is To Form An Approximately Accurate Conception Of Its Characteristics. In Works Of A Complex Nature, Especially If They Have Features Embodying Novel Arrangements Or Artistic Effects, An Architect Is Usually' ...

Prom Cultivated Products
Prom Cultivated Products. These May Be Derived From Either The Animal Or Vegetable World. The Latter Gives Rise To Agriculture, The Former To The Breeding Of Domestic Animals. Ethnologist Of Ability, Mr. Charles Pickering, Has Maintained That The History Of The Progress Of Mankind Can Be Distinctly Traced By The ...

Proposed Classifications Of Races
Proposed Classifications Of Races. We Shall Now Examine In Turn The Traits On Which These And Other Writers Have Subdivided The Human Species, So As To Give Each Its Just Weight. I. By Location: The Linnenan System, Or The Geographical System.— In This Scheme The Species Is Simply Divided With ...

Psychical Characteristics Op Man
Psychical Characteristics Op Man. The Above-mentioned Traits Clearly Distinguish Man From Other Species Of Animals, They Do Not Establish Any Such Marked Peculiarities In Him As To Remove Him From The Chain Of Organic Forms, In Which He Stands Merely As Physically The Most Complete. If He Differs Radically In ...

Public Buildings
Public Buildings. Classification. —public Buildings Are Devoted Either To Humane Objects In A General Sense, Such As The Fostering And Education Of Children, The Care Of The Poor And The Sick, The Administration Of Justice, Or To Such Works Of Public Utility As Business Intercourse, Recreation, Refreshment, Etc. To The, ...

Rails And Their Fastenings
Rails And Their Fastenings. Early Forms Of First Rails Were Made Of East Iron, And Con Tinued In Use Until Birkenshaw Of Bedlington, Durham (england), Made The First Rolled Rail Of Wrought Iron, The Metal, While Hot, Being-, Passed Between Grooved Rollers Of The Required Pattern. The Cast-iron Rails Had ...

Railway Cars
Railway-cars. E.ar/y Rathvay-cars.—that The Railway-cars (carriages, Coupes) May Be Able To Travel Oyer The Railway With Safety At The High Speed Required In Railway Practice, They Should Be Built With Greater Solidity Than The Road Vehicles Previously Described (p. 164), And Upon A Different Model. The Earliest Railway-cars Resembled The ...

Recorded Speech
Recorded Speech. A Striking Illustration Of The Influence Which The Genius Of Different Languages Has Exerted On The Destiny Of Nations And Their Position In The Scale Of Civilization Has Been The Effect Which The Structure Of Idioms Has Had On The Discovery And Development Of The Art Of Writing. ...

Religion Or The Western
Religion Or The Western Asiatic Nations. We Shall Now Proceed To A Consideration Of The Spiritual Condition Of The Eastern Nations, Or, What In Those Epochs Was The Equivalent Of That Condition, Their Religions Consciousness And Development. The Worship Of The Sun, Which We Have Already Noticed (p. 131) As ...