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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Textile Machinery
Textile Machinery. Among The Utilitarian Arts Which Mark Man's Progress From A State Of Barbarism, There Are None Of Greater Antiquity Than That Of Spinning And Weaving. It Appears, Indeed, To Have Come Into Existence With The First Dawniugs Of Civilization. In The Remains Of The Lake-dwellers There Have Been ...

Tfie Architectural Art Of
Tfie Architectural Art Of The Franks And Other Gernian Ic Races. Roman Civilization Had Spread Its Branches Over The Alps; Gaul And A Part Of Germany Were Romanized. For Centuries In Contact And In Com Mercial Relations With The Romans, The Germanic Races Became To A Certain Extent Acquainted With ...

The Age Of Bronze
The Age Of Bronze. Dale And Advent Of The Age Of Bronze In Europe Has Been Traced In Volume I. (pp. 17r, 172). It May Be Roughly Said To Have Been From Two To Three Thousand Years Before The Christian Era. Without Resuming The Chronological Considerations Already Discussed, We Shall ...

The Age Of Iron
The Age Of Iron. Date Of Commenconco/.—in Volume I. (p. 173) We Have Seen That The Beginning Of The Age Of Iron In Europe Was Prehistoric, Although It Can Not Be Placed Many Centuries Before The Existence Of Written Records. Some Antiquaries, Indeed, Have Argued That As Iron Is A ...

The Age Of Stone
The Age Of Stone. No Doubt, As Lucretius Said (see P. I6), The First Anus Or Utensils Of Men Were Branches Of Trees Or Stones In The Shapes In Which They Naturally Offer Themselves, Without Dressing Of Any Sort. As Has Been Previously Shown In Volume I. (p. 22), The ...

The Agricultural Stage
The Agricultural Stage. The General Introduction Of Agriculture As A Source Of The Food-supply Marks The Turning-point In The Development Of National Growth. Agri Culture Puts A Stop To The Restless Wanderings Of The Hunter And The Nomad; It Accustoms Man To The Salutary Discipline Of Regular Labor; It Teaches ...

The Americans
The Americans. Tfie Aboriginal Inhabitants Of America Constitute A Single Great Race, In Which Are To Be Included The Extreme Northern Peoples Of The Continent, The Eskimos And Their Relations The Kodyaks, Malaimiutes, Aleutians, And Also The Namohos, Who Have Passed Over Into Asia. Some Scientists Class Into One Division ...

The Arabians
The Arabians. Origin, Etc.—they, Like The People Of The Neighboring Countries, Sprang From The Semitic Stock; And Though They Branched Off More Widely From The Parent Stem, Yet, Never Having Been Subjugated By Other Races Or Intermixed With Them, They Preserved More Faithfully Its Peculiar Cha Racteristics. Their Traditions, Transmitted ...

The Asiatic Races
The Asiatic Races. The Old Testament Makes Us Acquainted With The Possessors Of Still Another Civilization, With A Series Of Races Of The Same Stock As The Chosen People. The Tenth Chapter Of Genesis Mentions Nim Rod As The Great-grandson Of The Patriarch Noah: " He Began To Be A ...

The Assyrians And Babylonians
The Assyrians And Babylonians. The Civilization Which Claims Our Attention Next After That Of Egypt Had Its Seat In The Countries Bordering On The Euphrates And The Tigris, Whence It Gradually Spread Over The Larger Part Of Western Asia, Embracing Within Its Influence Most Of The Tribes And Nations Belong ...

The Australians
The Australians. Phvsical Characteristics Stature And Races Of The North Are Physically And Intellectually Better Developed Than Those Of The South, East, And West; They Are Tall (often Six Feet) And Well Formed, While The Latter Are For The Most Part Smaller In Stature And Of Puny Figure, With Thin, ...

The Basques
The Basques. We Class The Basques Among The Indo-european Race, Because, As We See Them To-day And As Far As We Can Trace Them, They Coincide In Physical Structure And In Manner Of Living With The Other Nations Of Central And Southern Europe, Though In Language They Seem To Be ...

The Bronze Age
The Bronze Age. Although Many Implements Of Pure Copper Have Been Exhumed Both In America And The Old World, That Metal Is Too Soft In Its Pure State Ever To Have Been Of Much Value As A Material Furnishing A Cutting Edge, And Hence It Added Little To Man's Power ...

The Dravidian Peoples Under
The Dravidian Peoples. Under The General Name Of The Dravidian Peoples We Designate The Under The General Name Of The Dravidian Peoples We Designate The Original Inhabitants Of Hither India Who Now Have Their Dwelling-place In The South Among The Aryan Population, But Differ From The Aryan Indians In Speech, ...

The Egyptians
The Egyptians The Ancient Egyptians Considered Themselves The Original Inhabitants Of Their Country. This, However, Is Simply A Proof That When They Began To Speculate Concerning Their Origin They Had No Recollection Of Having Migrated From An Earlier Home. Modern Ethnologists Are Nearly Unanimous In The Belief That The Egyptians ...

The Esthetic Arts
The 'esthetic Arts. Aesthetic Arts Are Those Designed To Give Pleasure. Their Aim Is Primarily To Affect The Senses In An Agreeable Manner, And By Association The Emotions And The Intellect. Hence A Philosophical Exam Ination Of Them Could With Propriety Classify Them In A Physiological Scheme As They Are ...

The European Indo Germanic Peoples
The European Indo-germanic Peoples. Like Fick, We Include The Ancient Phrygians Of Asia Minor Among The European Indo-germans, While The Cewadockras Seem Rather To Belong To The Iranians. The European Indo-germanic Nations, Who Had Been, As Fick Has Proved By Their Language, For A Long Time United, Separated Later Into ...

The Food Supply
The Food-supply. Influence Of Quality Of Food.—it Has Been Mentioned On A Previous Page (20) That The Structure Of The Human Teeth Does Not Authorize The Statement That Either Animal Or Vegetable Food Was Ever Man's Exclusive Or " Natural " Diet. In His Different Communities He Is Found Subsisting ...

The Greeks
The Greeks. The Greeks, To Whom Our Attention Is Now Turned, Are, As Is Manifest From Their Language, Likewise Of Aryan Origin, And Are Consequently Related To The Indians. The Largely Varied Results Of Their Culture Have Been Attributed To Manifold Causes Without Any Satisfactory Explana Tion Having Been Really ...

The Growth Of Wants
The Growth Of Wants. In An Essay On " Civilization Considered As A Science " An English Writer, Mr. George Harris, Has Remarked : "whatever Produces Want Or Occasions The Perception Of It Has A Tendency To Promote Civilization." What Savage Nations Have Lacked To Impel Them Toward Culture Is ...

The Hunting And Fishing
The Hunting And Fishing Stage. In This Condition Of Life Much The Greater Part Or All Of The Food-supply Is Obtained From The Products Of The Forest And Stream Without The Exer Cise Of Care Or Cultivation. As A Rule, Little Provision Is Made For The Future, The Stores Laid ...

The Indians
The Indians. Classification And General Considerations.—the Indians Include, According To Lassen (see Alap), The Daradas Or Darn's In The North-west On The South-eastern Slopes Of The Hindoo-kush, And, West Of Them, The Kafirs (infidels—that Is, Not Mohammedans) Or Sijak-posk (that Is," Black Coats," Because They Wear Garments Of Black Hides), ...

The Iranian Peoples
The Iranian Peoples. In The History Of India Frequent Mention Is Made Of The Gnebers, Who, Though Great Numbers Of Them Were Destroyed In The Struggles With For Eign Conquerors, Are Dispersed Throughout The Country, But Arc Found Espe Cially In Gujerat. They Arc Persians Who Fled Before The Approaching ...