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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

The
The Indo•germanic Family. The Indo-germans Are The Most Widely Diffused Race Of Mankind, And They Still Continue To Sprehd. They Are The True Standard-bearers Of Civil Ization, And They Have Not Only Absorbed Whatever Of Its Elements The Semites Had Created And Developed, But Have So Fostered Them That Now ...

The Peoples Of Tiie
The Peoples Of Tiie Caucasus. We Have Already Pointed Out The Unity Of The Caucasian Races Among Themselves, And The Fact Of Their Belonging To The Mongolian Stock, And Have Noted Their Bodily Peculiarities. We Proceed To Give An Ethnographic Sketch Of The Nations Belonging To This Division. The Task ...

The Phoenicians And The
The Phoenicians And The Hebrews. The Phoenicians Are Noted In Profane Histo For Their Commerce, Their Extensive Voyages, And Their Colonies, While The History Of The Hebrews Is Derived From The Old Testament. Whether The Phoeni Cians Had That Influence Upon The Bronze Age Of The North European Nations Which ...

The Polynesians And Micronesians
The Polynesians And Micronesians. The Islands Of Oceanica Are Divided Into Fiat Coral And High Volcanic Islands. A Single Coral-reef Enclosing In Its Midst A Shallow Sea Or Lagoon Often Contains Several Small Islands Or Develops Into A Complete Ring (p. 15, Jig. 2), Or Even Into A Large Flat ...

The Preparation Of Food
The Preparation Of Food. Many Of The Natural Products Used As Foods Are Not Found In The Pre Cise Condition In Which They Can Be Eaten. A Striking Example Of This Is The Cassava, Afanikot Zailissima, Which Furnishes The Staple Article Of Diet For Many South American Tribes. As The ...

The Primitive Condition Of
The Primitive Condition Of Man. Popular Will Be Seen, From What Has Been Said, That The General Argument Of Evolution Or Development, Whether This Is Taken In Its Zoological Or Merely In Its Historical Sense, Assumes That The Primitive Condition Of Man Was An Exceedingly Low One, Removed But One ...

The Religious Arts
The Religious Arts. In The Foregoing Pages We Have Classified The Art-products Of Man With Reference To The Motives Which Led To Their Manufacture And The Purpose For Which They Were Designed, Whether For Use Or To Give Pleasure. But This Arrangement Omits An Active Branch Of Artistic Industry Which ...

The Romans
The Romans. The Romans Were In The Strictest Sense An Historical People. Unlike The Development Of Other Nations Upon An Original Soil And Under Favorable Circumstances, The History Of Rome Begins With A Struggle Against Immediate Surroundings; The Surmounting Of Internal As Well As Of External Obstacles Was The Condition ...

The Sasanian Style
The Sasanian Style. The Dismemberment Of The Macedonian Empire The Selencids Ruled Persia Until 246 I,. C. ; After Them Came The Arsacids, Who Founded The Parthian Kingdom, Which Lasted Until 229 A. D. Its Relations With The Greeks, And Afterward With Rome, Made The Land Accessible To The Greek ...

The Sexual Relation
The Sexual Relation. Origin Of Sex.—the Bisexual Division Of The Species Into Male And Female Is By No Means Universal Among Animals. Some Of These, In A Rather High Stage Of Development, Have But One Sex. Why The Distinc Tion Of The Two Sexes Arose Has Not Been Fully Explained ...

The Stage Of Civilization
The Stage Of Civilization. Here The Means Of Subsistence Are Obtained As Largely Through Com Merce As Through Agriculture ; The Influence Of Woman Is Felt And Acknow Ledged As Almost Equal To That Of Man ; Education Is General, And The Growth Of Polite Literature Has Established The Canons ...

The Stage Of Enlightenment
The Stage Of Enlightenment. We Are, Indeed, But In The Beginning Of This Period, But Its Conquests Have Been Rapid And Its Lines Of Development Arc Already Clearly Marked Out. We May Look Securely Forward To The Time When Improved Methods Of Agriculture And Transportation Will Render Impossible Any General ...

The Stone Age
The Stone Age. As Has Been Mentioned On A Previous Page (96), The Period When Man Had No Better Implements Than He Could Manufacture Out Of Wood, Stone, Or Bone Appears To Have Extended Over Most Of The Earth's Surface For A Far Greater Length Of Time Than Has Elapsed ...

The Sub Species Or Races
The Sub-species Or Races Of Man. If We Accept The Conclusion Which Has Been Offered In The Previous Pages, That All Human Beings Belong To One Zoological Species, And Are Descended, If Not From One Pair, At Least From A Small Group Of Similar Animals Occupying A Limited Territory Toward ...

The Unity Of The
The Unity Of The Human Species. Definition Of The Above Considerations Demonstrate That Man Has A Number Of Traits Which Mark Him Off As A Wholly Distinct Species, The Question Arises, Must We Go Farther And Erect Him Into A Genus, Including A Number Of Species? In Other Words, Is ...

Thirteenth And Fourteenth Centuries
French Gothic, Thirteenth And Fourteenth Centuries. When We Compare The Two Styles Whose Transition-point We Have Now Reached, And When We Consider Their Characteristic Peculiarities, We Find That Both To A Certain Extent Exemplify Nationality Rather Than Time. The Technical Appellations Themselves Have Indeed Come Clown To Us From A ...

Thirteenth To Sixteenth Century
English Gothic, Thirteenth To Sixteenth Century As May Be Imagined, The Great Energy Displayed In An Architectural Direction In France At The Close Of The Twelfth And The Commencement Of The Thirteenth Century Drew The Attention Of Other Lands To The Progress Made. We Have Already Noted (p. 18r) The ...

Tiie Byzantine Style
Tiie Byzantine Style. Though Rome Ruled The World, It Flattered The Greeks And So Appre Ciated Their Culture As To Model Its Own Upon It. Rome Gathered Grecian Art To Itself And Spread It Wide Over The Globe. The Greeks Were Proud To Know That They Ruled The World-ruling Romans, ...

Tiie Chinese
Tiie Chinese. We Have Already Spoken Of The Gradual Transformation Of The Bodily Type Of The People Of Farther India Into The Chinese (p. 236). When The Chinese Emigrated From The West To Their Present Home They Drove Out Of That Locality Many Of The Tribes Already Settled There, Among ...

Tiie Renaissance In Italy
Tiie Renaissance In Italy. With The Renaissance In The Fifteenth Century Came The Study Of Man For Man's Sake, The Rise Of Individualism. The More Imaginative And Religious Art Of The Preceding Age Was Lost, And In Its Place We Find A Close Imitation Of Nature, A Study Of Psychology, ...

Tm Tertiary Age I
Tm: Tertiary Age I. Eocene Pcriod.—there Are Living Representatives Of The Orders And Families Of This Period, But Not Of Its Genera Or Species. Ii. Miocene Teriori.—represented To-day By Living Genera, But All Its Species Are Extinct. Ii.--2 Iii. Pliocene Of Its Genera And A Few Of Its Species Are ...

Tools And Utensils
Tools And Utensils. The Tool Is Not The End Or Aim Of Art, But Its Means; It Is A Prerequisite To Further Steps In The March Of Invention, And Is Devised To Enable Man To Overcome The Resistance Of The Material Which He Wishes To Bring Under His Control And ...

Trade And Commerce
Trade And Commerce. Trade And Commerce Increased In Importance With The Growth Of Cities; The Latter Indeed Depended Upon The Former. The Value Of Association Was Early Recognized. Guilds And Trades Unions Were Established In The Cities, And The Larger Of The Cities Became United In Oldest Of These, The ...

Transport Machines For Gases
Transport Machines For Gases. It Is Required At Times To Carry Air Or Other Gaseous Bodies From One Place To Another In Closed Vessels, As For Lighting Railway-cars, Making, The Hydrogen Light, Etc. It Is Also Required To Empty A Closed Vessel Of Air Or Other Gas, Or To Compress ...

Transport Machines For Liquids
Transport Machines For Liquids. As Regards Their Behavior Under Transportation, There Is A Similarity Between Liquids Proper—for Example, Water—and Such Semi-solids As Mor Tar, And Even Between Them And Granular Or Pulverulent Substances, Such As Sand And'flour. The Methods Employed To Lift All These From A Lower To A Higher ...

Transport Machines For Solid
Transport Machines For Solid Bodies. Prroriiiuc Aicans Of Transport: Thc First Recourse Of Man For Conveyance Was His Own Back And Limbs, And In Sonic Countries This Method Is Still Employed. The Dog, The Horse, The Ox, The Camel, The Dromedary, Cud The Elephant Have All Been Subjected To Man's ...