TYPES OF DWELLINGS.
The art of construction is traceable to practically similar beginnings among all peoples. While it is doubtless true that primitive man fonnd frequent shelter in caves, in hollow trees, and in thick underbrush, as do many of the lower animals, it is equally true that like the latter he is nat urally a home-building animal, and the instinct that Nature has so gen erally implanted in its animate creations finds in man, as do all the in stincts of the lower animals, a higher and an msthetic development.
The earliest habitations of primitive man, such as caves, rock-shelters, or grottos, need scarcely be considered in connection with our present sub ject, falling as they do more properly within the province of ethnology. In historic times, among all races, in hyperborean latitudes as also iu equa torial regions, the crudest human habitation specifically constructed as such has taken the form of a lint.
The Tent, or movable domicile constructed by man in the nomadic and pastoral stag-e of progress, is generally a prototype of the inore permanent dwellings constructed by the same races in their settled condition. In fact, ethnological research has clearly indicated that the architecture of any given people, as expressed in its temples and palaces, may be consid ered, both in its outward character and in its principle of construction, as but the crudest form of the simple domicile developed to a stage commen surate with the national progress. The tent consisted in its simplest form of a covering of skins or cloth stretched over a framework of cords and poles and fastened tightly to the ground by pegs. From the earliest his toric times tents have been used for purposes of shelter. We read (Gen. iv. 2o) that Jabal " was the father of such as dwell in tents and have cat tle." From the first their use has been associated with pastoral life, whose requirements lead to frequent removals in search of water and pasturage. The first tents were undoubtedly covered with skins (Ex. xxvi. 141, but nearly all the tents mentioned in Scripture had coverings of woven goat's hair (Ex. xxxv. 26; xxxvi. 14), as have the tents now used in Western Asia; hence it was that " the tents of Kedar " were " black " (Cant. i. 5).
Figure 5 (ft/. 12) is a sketch of a tent as constructed by the early Hebrews. The square form, the perpendicular walls, the entrance, and all its salient features, are traceable in the permanent structure ( 4) of a later stage of development. Figure (i5/. ir) is a sketch of an Assyrian tent of a type which is represented on Assyrian sculptures found at Nine veh, and which is similar to those still in use in the East. This tent is found reproduced in the more advanced Assyrian abode (pl. 12, 3), where the tent-poles have developed into pillars and the arched roof into a cupola or dome. The patriarchal tents mentioned in the Bible were prob
ably such as are now seen in Arabia, of oblong shape and S or io feet high in the middle. The ordinary family-tent of the Arabs of modern times is a ridged structure from 20 tO 4o feet in length whose covering is a thick. felt of goat's-hair. It is divided into two apartments—one for the men, and the other for the women. Figure 2 (pl. ii) represents a Turkish tent, whose salient features are traceable in the peculiar minarets of later Sara cenic and modern Russian dwellings (pl. 13, jig. 6). The portable sum mer tent of the North American Indian tribes never reached a stage of development more advanced than their permanent lint-shelter, or wigwam. Their tents are constructed of a number of poles placed together in conical form, fastened at the top, and covered with skins or the bark of trees (151.
Huis.—The first permanent abodes constructed by men were huts, per haps partially sunk in the ground, the upper part being formed of posts, which were covered with earth and leaves, while the rude walls of the in terior were covered with the skins of animals. Domiciles of a similar character are still in use among races in the primitive stag,e, though their details of construction, and naturally, also, their materials, vary with cli matic and local conditions. On Plate II we have a number of huts as con structed by different races at similar stages of development in various parts of the globe; the essential features of these dwellings will be found to possess a marked similarity. Figure 3 is a Teutonic hut as constructed by the early Gothic tribes when they ceased their migratory habits and be came sedentary. Figure 4 is a hut of scarcely more complicated construc tion, the habitation of the Slav of a comparatively recent period. Figure 5 represents a domicile inhabited by the populations of Celtic origin whom Csar fonnd in the region which he termed Gaul; later historians refer to structures of this kind as composing the villages of these early settlers. Comparing, these with the huts of contemporary barbarian races, we find the same characteristics as those before noted. These are traceable in the wigwam of the Pequod Indian (fig. 7), in the thatched hut of the South African (fig. r), and in the similar habitation of the sedentary Laplander (fig. 9). In this connection may be noted the cliff-dwellings of South western Colorado and the adjacent Territories (fig. 8) and the well-advanced and hig-hly-interesting structures of the pueblo Indians, whose communal dwellings (fig. To), consisting of an extensive ag-gregation of chambers en closed by walls of sundried bricks or adobes, have some claims to consid eration as specimens of architecture.