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Iconographic Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences

Tron Bridges
Tron Bridges. Earliest Iron Bridges Were Built Of Cast Iron, Which In Time Gave Place To Wrought Iron—a Tougher Material, And One Less Liable To Be Affected Injuriously By Concussion. In Recent Years But Few Large Bridges Have Been Constructed Of Cast Iron. Among These May Be Named The Arch ...

Tunnel Construction
Tunnel Construction. Kccessity For A Line Of Communication (highway, Rail Way, Or Canal) Is Interrupted By A Barrier Of Rock, And Where Au Open Cut Is Impracticable Because Of The Amount Of Material To Be Removed, And Also Where A Detour Or Displacement Of The Line Of Communication Is Undesira ...

Turnouts And Switches
Turnouts And Switches. Thrnortts.—on Single-traek Railways, On Which Trains Mnst Be Run In Both Directions, It Is Necessary To Provide Some Means Whereby One Train May Turn From The Main Track To Permit Another To Pass By. Again, It Is Necessary To Provide Means Whereby One Train May Be Able ...

Types Of Dwellings
Types Of Dwellings. The Art Of Construction Is Traceable To Practically Similar Beginnings Among All Peoples. While It Is Doubtless True That Primitive Man Fonnd Frequent Shelter In Caves, In Hollow Trees, And In Thick Underbrush, As Do Many Of The Lower Animals, It Is Equally True That Like The ...

Ural Japanese Peoples
Ural-japanese Peoples. Ciassification.—the Ural-japanese Peoples Are Divided Into Several Groups: T. Thejapanese, With The Nearly-related Islanders, The Athos, And The 0»rairs. To The Ainos Belong The Sal/taws Or Gllyaks, And The .vaikis On The Lower Amoor, Whither They Probably Emigrated From The West Coast Of The Island Of Saglialin, Which ...

Vehicles
Vehicles. Term Vehicle, In Its Widest Application, Embraces All Structures Employed For The Purpose Of Transportation Of Merchandise And Of Human Beings. Specifically, Vehicles Which Are Hung On Springs And Used For Pleasure Are Termed Carriages. Four-wheeled Vehicles Used For Carrying Goods And Heavy Loads Are Commonly Called Wagons, And ...

Water Wheels
Water Wheels. The Water, Being Raised Through Evaporation Into The Atmosphere By The Heat Of The Sun And Of The Earth, And After Precipitation As Rain And Snow Being Drawn Into The Valleys By The Attraction Of Gravitation, Is Made Available For Motive Power In The Latter Track Of This ...

Weapons
Weapons. These May Be Classed As They Are Designed For Offensive And Defensive Purposes. Of Offensive Weapons, The Oldest Are Doubtless The Stone And The Club, The Former For Hurling From A Distance, The Latter For The Hand-to Hand Conflict In Which The Heroes Of Yore Took Great Delight. The ...

Weights And Measures
Weights And Measures. The Extent Of A Nation's Conquest Over The Forces Of Nature Is Accurately Indicated By Its System Of Weights And Measures. On These Depend The Perfection Of Its Tools And The Range Of Its Industrial Activities. Art In All Its Branches Is Inseparably Connected With The Ideas ...

Wells And Well Boring
Wells And Well-boring. Obtain The Requisite Supplies Of Water In Localities Desti Tute Of Natural Springs Or Of Springs That Yield Sufficiently, And Where The Water Of Artificial Wells Is Poor In Quality, Recourse Must Be Had To Cisterns. These Watertight Covered Reservoirs For The Storage Of Rain-water Are Placed ...

Wheel Mills
Wheel-mills. Develofiment Of A Hollowed Stone Into A The Course Of Time The Cavity Of The Stationary Stone Became Deepened, And A Handle Was Attached To The Ball, Whereby There Resulted The Mortar And Pestle; So, Again, When The Upper Stone Was Enlarged And Provided With A Central Hole And ...

Wood Working Machines
Wood-working Machines. In Wood-working Machinery There Are Ten Principal Classes Of Opera Tions: (1) Chopping, Riving Or Splitting; (2) Sawing; (3) Planing Or Shav Ing; (4) Incising; (5) Boring; (6) Routing; (7) Turning; (8) Bending; (9) Polishing, And (io) Compressing. Choppinc And Or Sp/filing Arc Very Simple Operations, Effected With ...

Wooden Bridges
Wooden Bridges. Chtssilication.—considered In Respect Of Their Construction, Wooden Bridges May Be Classified As: (i) Plain Girder Bridges (pi. 39, Figs. 1-3), In Which The Roadway Of Planks Lies Crosswise Upon A Number Of Girders Placed Parallel To One Another. (2) Dovetailed And Dowelled Girder Bridges, In Which The Girders ...