AB'ERDEEN' (Celtic abet, confluence of waters, i.e., of the Don and Dee). The fourth largest city of Scotland, and the capital of Aberdeenshire. It is situated in the southeast ern part of the county, on the North Sea. about 95 miles north of Edinburgh (Map: Scotland, F 2): It forms the chief par't of a parliamentary burgh of the same name, and comprises all the territory lying between the rivers Dee and Don, thus including what was formerly known as Old Aberdeen. Tt. has a mean temperature of about 46° F., and is about 66 feet above the sea level. Aberdeen is a band-some city. largely built of granite quarried in the neighborhood, and is therefore known as the "Granite City." its streets are for the most part regular and well paved. Union Street, its principal thor oughfare, has been described as one of the handsomest. streets in Europe, and contains many of the notable public. buildings. Chief among them are the municipal and county build ings, an imposing structure in the Scotch baro nial style. Nearby is "The Cross," a Curious mon ument adorned with medallions of Scottish mon archs. At the western end of Union Street are the Music Hell buildings, particularly notable in point of architecture, and the Trades' Hall, in which are kept the shields of the different incorporated trades. Several of the bank build ings are tasteful edifices. The east and west churchog, although comparatively modern, are interesting from the fact that they are built on the site of the ancient church of St. Nicholas, and are connected by an old wooden tower. Among the many other churches of Aberdeen the &man Catholic church is notable for its beautiful spire, two hundred feet high, and the cathedral of St. Machar, begun in 1357, for its severe simplicity of style. The River Dee is crossed by four bridges, one of which, a stone bridge, dates from 1527.
Among its advantages the city has an excellent harbor and immense floating docks, enabling it to carry on a large maritime trade in textile goods, agricultural products, and granite. It is a large manufacturing centre, the chief indus tries including cotton spinning, manufacture of cotton, woolen and linen goods, iron foundries and paper mills. Granite cutting and shipbuild ing are aLso quite important, although the latter industry has diminished in.importance since the days of wooden vessels, when the Aberdeen clip pers were famous. Aberdeen's means of com munication are excellent. It is at the junction of three railway lines, and is connected by steamer with Leith, Newcastle, Hull, and Lon don. Its own shipping comprises about 180
steam and 40 sailing vessels, tonnage about 100, 0000. Annually 3000 vessels, representing a gross tonnage of nearly 2,000,000, clear the port. The chief exports are fish, spirits, cloth manufac tures, coal products, stone, etc., and the chief imports barley, wheat meal, maize, oats, flax seed, sugar, timber, paper-making materials, etc. The total value of imports and exports averages annually £1,100.000 ($5,500,000). Aber deen is the fourth port of importance in Scot land. The United States is represented there by an agent.
Aberdeen sends two members to Parliament, :Aid is one of the most progressive of mu nicipalities. It has the usual authorities, con sisting of a lord provost. bailies. councilors, etc. (See GREAT BRITAIN, paragraph on Govern ment.) The city owns and operates its water and gas works and an electric light plant, as well as its electric tramways, and maintains public baths. markets, and two cemeteries. It is one of the few municipalities which have taken up the question of the proper housing of the working people, and as a result it has estab lished a lodging house and erected several work men's dwellings. Aberdeen's educational insti tutions are very numerous, and include the Uni versity of Aberdeen (q.v.), established in 1860 by the consolidation of King's College of Old Aber deen. founded in 1494. and Marischal College of New Aberdeen, founded in 1593. In the year 1809-1900 there were about 900 students in attendance. The university library contains about 130.000 volumes. Among the other col leges and schools are Gordon's College, which receives a yearly grant from the city, an art school, a navigation school, an ancient grammar school dating from 1263, the Free Church Divin ity College, and the Aleehanics' Institution. Among the benevolent and charitable institutions are the Royal Infirmary, an epidemic hospital and one for incurables, a large lunatic asylum, and a poorhouse. The city has two fine public parks. Aberdeen appears in the twelfth cen tury as a populous town. William the Lion granted it a charter in 1179 and Robert Bruce extended its privileges. The English burned the town in 13311, but it was rebuilt and named New Aberdeen. It suffered severely during the civil wars of the seventeenth century. A period of great prosperity began in ISIS. with the rediscovery of the art of granite polishing. Population of royal, parliamentary, and munie ipal burgh, 1891, 123,000; 1901, 153,10S, 9381i of whom overflow into Kincardineshire.