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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

A Priori
A Priori (lat., Froni Something Prior, Foregoing, A. From. And Prior, Prior). In Aris Totelian Terminology, A Designation Applied To Arguments From Cause To Effect, As Opposed To A Posteriori (lat., From Something Posterior, Fol Lowing), Which Describes Arguments From Effect To Cause. But Since Kant's Day A Priori Has ...

Aargau
Aargau, Iir'gou, Or Argovie, A Canton Of Northern Switzerland, With An Area Of 540 Square Miles (map: Switzerland. C 1). Tts Surface Is Mostly Mountainous. But There Arc A Number Of Fine Valleys. The Chief Rivers Are The Aar, A Tributary Of The Rhine. And Its Tributaries, The Reuss And ...

Aaron
Aaron, 5rfiln. A Jewish High Priest And Elder Brother Of Moses. When Moses Was Sent On His Mission Of Deliverance To Pharaoh, Aaron Was Appointed His Spokesman And Performed Some Miracles, Even Bringing On Some Of The Plagues. He Is Always. However, The Subordinate Of Moses, Front Whom He Receives ...

Abatement O F
Abatement (o. F. Lessening, From Lat. A, Away + Bat Herr, To Beat). A Term Used In Various Senses In The Common Law Of England And The United States, As Follows: (1) Abatement Of Freehold. The Unlawful Entry Upon And Taking Possession Of An Estate Of Inheritance By A Stranger ...

Abbot
Abbot (through Lat. Obbas, Gk. 613,36c, Abbess, From Syriac Ubba, Father). A Name Orig Inally Given As A Term Of Respect To Any Monk. Especially To One Noted For Piety, But Afterward Ordinarily Applied To The Superior Of A Monastery Or Abbey. The First Abbots Were Laymen, As The Monks ...

Abbreviations
Abbre'via'tions (lat. Ad, To + Breris, Short). Contrivances In Writing For Saving Time And Space. They Are Of Two Kinds, Consist Ing Either In The Omission Of Some Letters, Or Words, Or In The Substitution Of Some Arbitrary Sign. In The Earliest Times, When Uncial Or Lapidary Characters Were Used, ...

Abd El Kader Ibn Mouhi Ad Din
Abd-el-kader Ibn Mouhi Ad-din, 'b'n (e. 1807-83). An Algerian Ruler And Patriot. Lie Was Born Near Mascara. And Was Educated Under The Super Vision Of His Father At The Ghana. An Educational Institution Of The Marabouts. His Father, Who Was Esteemed A Very Holy Man, Exercised Great In Fluence Over ...

Abd Ul Aziz
Abd-ul-aziz, Fibd'ul-a-zez' (1830-76). Thir Ty-second Sultan Of The Dttoman Empire. Ile Was The Second Son Of 11., And Suc Ceeded His Brother Abd-ul-medjid, June 25, 1861. Ile Placed The Government In The Hands Of Two Ministers, Fund And Ali, Both Of Reforming Ten Dencies, Largely Reduced His Own Civil List, ...

Abd Ul Haiviid Ii
Abd-ul-haiviid Ii. (1842—). Thirty Fourth Sultan Of The Ottoman Empire; Second Son Of Abd-ul-medjid. Ile Was Born September 22, 1842, And Succeeded To The Throne August 31, 1876, On The Deposition Of His Elder Brother, Nurad V. Abd-ul-ilamid Came To Power At A Trying Time. The Insurrection In Bosnia And ...

Abd Ur Rahman
Abd - Ur- Rahman ('ann Al-13all Al An) Khan, Niin Or Kiln (1830-1901). Ammer Of Afghanistan From 1880 To 1901. In The •onfu Sion -,uveeeding The Death Of His Grandfather, Host (q.v.) (1863), He Supported The Pretensions Of His Father, Afdai, Against His Uncle. Shere Ali, Who Had Been Named ...

Abdi Chiba
Abdi-chiba, Ab'de-chefba. A Governor Of Jerusalem In The Time Of Amenophis Iv. (1403 1385 Tic.). If Correctly Read, His Name Probably Designates Him As A Of Hadad," The Storm-gud: Hut It Possibly Was Pronounced "ardu-hipa," And May Have Been Of Mitanian Origin (compare Pu-hipa, Tadu-hipa, Giln-hipa). Among The Letters Found ...

Abdication
Ab'dica'tion ( La T, Renunciation, Front Ab. Away From + Dieare, To Proclaim). The Renunciation Of An Office, Generally The Office Of Ruler Or Sovereign. It Is Rarely Done Out Of Pure Preference Of A Private Station, But Is Gen Erally The Result Of Vexation And Disappointment. The General Well-being ...

Abdiel
.abdiel, (hob. 'owl, Servant + God). In Paradise Lost. The Faithful Angel Who ;pnosed The Revolt In Heaven Begun By Satan. Abdomen. The Lower Cavity Of The Human Body. The Trunk Of The Human Body Is Divided By The Diaphragm Into Two Eavities—the Upper Being The The Or Chest. And ...

Abeille
Abeille, I'ba'y' Or A'bal', Jonas (1809—). A French Military Surgeon. He Was Born At St. Tropez And Was Educated At Montpellier. As The Chief Physician Of The Military Hospitals Of Paris He Was One Of The Principal Promoters Of The Method Of Treating Cholera With Strychnine. After 1857 He Devoted ...

Abercromby
Abercromby, Sin Ralen (1734-1801). A Distinguished British General. Ile Was Born At 3lenstry, Near Tullibody, Seotland, October, 1734. Lie Was Educated At Rugby, And Studied For The Legal Profession At Edinburgh And Leipzig. But Preferred The Artily, And A Cornet's Commission Was Obtained For Him In 1758. In 1758 He ...

Aberdeen
Ab'erdeen' (celtic Abet, Confluence Of Waters, I.e., Of The Don And Dee). The Fourth Largest City Of Scotland, And The Capital Of Aberdeenshire. It Is Situated In The Southeast Ern Part Of The County, On The North Sea. About 95 Miles North Of Edinburgh (map: Scotland, F 2): It Forms ...

Aberdeen_2
Aberdeen, Fourth Earl Of, George Ham Ilton Gordon (17s4-1800). A British States Man. Ile Was Born At Edinburgh, January 28, 1784. Lle Was Edueated At Harrow, And In 1804 Took The M.a. Degree At St. John's College. Cam Bridge. In 1801 He Had Succeeded To The Earl Dom And Made ...

Aberration Of Light
Aberration Of Light. An Expression Used To Describe The Phenomena That Arise From The Fact That Light Requires Appreciable Time For Its Transmission Through Space. The Motion Of Light Traveling From A Star Or A Planet Toward The Earth, Combined With The Earth's Own Motion, Causes An Apparent Displacement Of ...

Abiazones Amazons
Am'azons, Abiaz'ones (from Gk. 'afia.7.4,e, Am A Vrni ) . In Early Greek Legends, A Race Of War Like Women, Who Either Suffered No Man To Live Among Them, Or Held Men In Servitude For The Con Tinuance Of The Race. The Earliest Accounts Place Them In Northeast Asia Minor, ...

Abimelech
Abimelech, S-him'e-lik May Father Is King, Or Slolech). The Name Of Four Persons In The Old Testament, Two Of Whom Appear Promi Nently In The Narratives. I. A Son Of Gideon (judges Viii :31), C.100 Ac., And Reckoned As One Of The Judges By The Narrative In Judges X:1. Upon ...

Abney
Ab'ney, Sir William De Wiveleslie (1844—). An English Astronomer And Physi Cist. He Was Horn At Derby, And Was Educated At The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. He Was Made A Lieutenant In The Royal Engineers In 1861 And A Captain In 1871. From 1893 To 189s Ile Served As President ...

Abortion
Abortion, Or Miscarriage, In Law. The Courts In This Country Are Not Agreed As To The Nature Of The Crime At Common Law. In A Number Of States There Are Decisions Or Dicta To The Effect That "to Produce An Abortion On A Woman, Before She Is Quick With Child, ...

Abortion In Animals
Abortion In Animals. In General, Two Forms Of Abortion Are Recognized By Veterinarians, The Non-contagious And The Contagious. There Are A Number Of Conditions Which May Produce Non - Contagious Abortion. A General Eachexia Or Amemia May Be Among The Predisposing Causes Of Abortion; And Among Other Conditions And Causes ...

About
About, H Enuoxo (1828-85). A Bril Liant, Witty. But Uneven French Journaliq, Nov Elist, And Writer Of Social And Political Essays. Ile Was Born At Dienze, Completed His Studies In Paris, Won Honors; And Was Sent In 1851 To The French School At Athens, Where He Studied Lit Tle, But ...

Abraham
Abraham. The Father Of The Hebrews, Whose Story Is Given In Genesis Xi-xxv. It Con Sists Of A Series Of Incidents In The Patriarch's Life, Put Together In A Consecutive Narrative And Emanating From Different Literary Sources. In Genesis Xi : 10 The Genealogy Of The Shemites (or Sons Of ...

Abrasives
Abrasives (lat. Ab• Away Raderr. To Serape, Scratch). The Natural And Artificial Substanees Used In The Arts For Scraping. Grind Ing, And Polishing. The Principal Abrasives Now Used Are Corundum, Emery, Garnet, Quartz, Carborundum, Diatomaceous Earth, Tripoli, Pum Ice, Rouge, Crushed Steel, Abrasive Stones, And Sand. Corundum Is A Crystalline ...

Absalom
Ab'salom (heb., Father Of Peace). The Third Son Of Ring David (ii. Samuel Iii: 3; I. Chronicles Iii: 2), Whose Romantic Career Makes Him A Prominent Figure In Old Testament History. Encountering The Ill Will Of David Through Slaying Amnon, Another Son Of The King, In Re Venge For An ...

Absinthe
Absinthe, Fib'sinth (fr., From The I:k. (llpfroine, A ',ninth Ion. Wormwood) A Bitter Liquor. The Base Of Which Is An Alcoholic Solution Of !per Tain Essential Derived From A Number Of Plants. The Chief Source Is A Form Of Worm Wood, Or Absinthium (a Rtemisia Absin I Hiu M (for ...

Absolute
Ab'solute (lat. Abso/utus, Brought To A Conclusion, Final, Complete, From A Bsol Erre, To Loosen From. Bring To A Close. Complete). A Term Employed In Philosophy And Theology With Vari Ous Meanings, But In Every Ease In Direct Antithe Sis To The Raft T I Re. :\ Tany Theological Phi ...

Absolution
Absolution. The Remission Of Sin And Its Penalties May Be Divided Into Sacramental And Ealionieal—one Relating To The Forum Internam, And Constituting The Most Important Part Of The Sacrament Of Penance; The Other To The Forum Es Ternum And Devoted Especially To The Remission Of Ecclesiastical Censure. Their Early History ...

Absorption
Absorp'tion (lat. Ab, Away + Sorbere, To Swallow). When Certain Fluids Are Brought Together The Molecules Of One Mix Intimately With Those Of The Other And Diffusion Takes Place. If Certain Solids Containing Fluids Are Brought In Contact With Other Liquids, Some Of Passes Into The Solid And Absorption Takes ...

Absorption Of Waves
Absorption Of Waves. Waves Of Any Kind In Any Medium Carry Energy With Them; And, If The Energy Decreases, The Medium Is Said To Absorb It Or To Exhibit "absorption." Thus, If White Light Falls Upon Red Glass, I.e., If Ether Waves Which Affect The Normal Human Eye With The ...

Abstraction
Abstraction (let. Abs, Away + Trahere, To Draw). In Logic, The Process By Which The Mind Separates Out Marks Or Characteristics Which Are Similar In Various Objects, And Disre Gards The Marks Or Characteristics By Which The Objects Differ. It Also °emirs Where Characteris Ties Of Particular Objects, Or Classes ...

Absyrtus
Absyr'tus ( C K. •atpeproc, .1 Psy•tos). In The Legend Of The Argonautie Expedition (see Annoxii•rs I, The Younger Brother Of Medea. She Carried Him Off With Her \own She Tied With Jason From Col•his, And, According To The Common Version Of The Story, Deterred Her Pur Suing Parent. -fetes, ...

Abu Abbas Ab Dallaii
Al-mamun, Abu Abbas Ab Dallaii (783-833). A Caliph Of The Line Of The Abbassides (q.v.), Distinguished For His Intellectual Qualities. He Was The Son Of Harun - Al - Rashid. When Harun Died, His Brother Amin Succeeded To The Caliphate; But His Treatment Of Al-mamun Led To War, And After ...

Abyssinia
Ab'yssin'ia A•., From A Root Emmeeted With Ar. (if-habash, "eol Leet Ion, Body Of Men"). A Coun• Try In East Africa, Situated Between The Red Sea And The Blue Nile. And Extending From About 5° To 15° N. Lat., And 36° To 43° E. Long. (map: Africa, H 4). It ...

Acacia
Acacia (literally, Thorny, Gk. Asic, Akis, Point, Splinter, Thorn). A Genus Of Plants Of The Order Leguminos-e, Differing From Mimosa In The Greater Number Of Stamens (10 To 200) And The Absence Of Transverse Partitions In The Pods. There Are About 450 Species Of Acacia, 300 Of Which Are Indigenous ...

Academy
Academy (gk. Imaciiiurta, Akadrmicia, Or Asadqpia,akademia). Originally The Name Of A Public Garden Outside Of Athens, Dedicated To Athene And Other Deities, And Containing A Grove And A Gymnasium. It Was Popularly Believed To Have Derived Its Name From Its Early Owner, A Cer Tain Academus, An Eponymous Hero Of ...

Accad
Ac'cad. One Of The Chief Cities Of The Land Of Shinar (i.e., Babylonia), Mentioned In Genesis X : 10. Originally Applied To A City Only. The Name Was Afterward Extended To The District Of Which Aecad (or Akkad) Was At One Time The Centre, And Among The Titles Of The ...

Accent
Accent (lat. Accentus, From Ad, To -} Cantos, Singing, Chant). A Special Stress Laid Upon One Syllable Of A Word, By Which It Is Made More Prominent Than The Rest. In The Indo European Languages Two Kinds Of Accent Are Found, Varying In Quality—the Musical And The Expiratory. The First ...

Accession
Accession (lat. Ad, To + Eedere, To Go, Move). In The Law Of Property, A Mode Of Acquiring Title To Land Or Goods By Their Annex• Ation To The Real Or Personal Property Of Another, Whereby The Tiling Annexed Loses Its Separate Identity. It Occurs Where Land Is Gradually Increased ...

Accident
Ac'cident (lat.. Ad. To + Cadere, To Fall, Happen, Occur). In The Law Of Torts, A Trans Action In Which One Is Harmed By Another While The Latter Is Acting Lawfully And In The Exercise Of Due Care Adapted To The Exigency Of The Case. For Example, A's And B's ...

Accompaniment
Accompaniment. The Additional In Strumental Part Which, In Music Written For A Solo Voice Or Instrument, Gives Harmonic And Rhythmic Support To The Solo Part Or Melody: As The Pianoforte Part In A Song. The Orchestral Part In A Concert, Etc. An Ad Libitum Decom Pa N Ment Is One ...

Accord And Satisfaction
Accord' And Sat'isfac'tion. In The Law Of Contracts, A Mutual Agreement Entered Into By The Parties To A Contract. By Which One Party Agrees To Discharge The Other From His Obligation Under The Contract, In Return For The Other Party's Promise To Do Or Give Something. The Satisfaction Is The ...

Account
Account' (lat. Ad, To + Computare, To Sum Up, Reckon, Compute). In Its Broadest Sense, A Catalogue Of Items, Whether Of Debts Or Credits, Arising Out Of Eontracts, As In The Case Of Merchants; Or A Fiduciary Relation, As In The Ease Of Principal And Agent; Or A Duty Imposed ...

Accumulators
Accu'mula'tors. Apparatus For Equal Izing Pressure Or For The Accumulation Of Energy For Intermittent Use. The Storage Battery' And The Leyden Jar Are Electrical Atecumulalors. (see Sw/race Battery Condenser.) Hydraulic Ac Cumulators Are Extensively Used In Connection With Hydraulic Machinery For Operating Cranes, Punching And Riveting Machines, Presses, Etc. The ...

Accuracy
Accuracy. The Accuracy Of Analytical Work Varies Within Wide Limits, According To The Pur Pose Which An Analysis Is Intended To Serve. The Most Accurate Analyses Are Those Made To Deter Mine The Proportions By Weight, In Which The Various Elements Unite With Each Other. Thus, The Proportion In Which ...

Acetic Aldehyde
Aldehyde, Acetic, Often Called Ordinary Aldehyde, Or Simply Aldeiiyde. A Colorless Liquid Having A Peculiar Pungent And Suffocating Odor. It Is Very Volatile And Inflam Mable; It Boils, At 20.8° C.. And Has At 0° C. A Specific Gravity 0.801. It Occurs In Crude Alcohol And Wood Spirit, And Is ...

Acetylene
Acet'ylene From Acetyl), 1ic=cil A Colorless Gas Composed Chemically Of Carbon And Hydrogen. It Is Present In Small Quantities In Ordi Nary Illuminating Gas, And Has A Eharaet Eristic Disagreeable Odor Somewhat Resembling That Of Garlic. Its "critical Temperature" Is 37° C. (about 98°.6 F'.) ; That Is To Say, ...

Achiea
Achiea, (gk.'axa.ta.). (1) The South East Part Of Thessaly, The Legendary Home Of Achilles. (2.) The Northern Part Of Pelopon Nest's, Bordering On The Corinthian Gulf. The Land Rising Gradually From The Coast To The Hills Of The Interior Was Famed In Ancient Times For Fertility In Production Of Oil, ...

Achillea
Achillea, (lat. Achilloos, Milfoil, Yarrow, Said To Have Been Discovered By Achilles). A Genus Of Plants Of About Eighty Species, Of The Natural Order Compositx, Having Small Flowers (heads Of Flowers) Disposed In Corymbs, And The Receptacle Covered With Chaffy Scales (small Bractex). The Florets Of The Ray Are Fertile, ...

Achilles
Achilles, A-killez (gk. 'axd.atilc, Achidlens). The Hero Of Homer's Iliad, And The Type Of Glorious Youth. In The Homeric Poems His Story Is Simple. The Son Of King Peleus And The Sea-goddess Thetis. He Was Brought Up At His Father's Court In Phthia Until Induced To Take Part In The ...

Achin
Achin, Fi-chenf, Or Atcheen. A Petty Kingdom Of About 20,000 Square Miles Area, With More Than Half A Million Inhabitants, At The North End Of Sumatra, Famed From Ancient Times As Part Of The Golden Chersonese. The Country Is Mountainous And Intersected With Many Rivers. The Famous Gold Mountain, 6000 ...

Achromatism
Achro'matism (colorlessness, From Gk. A Prix. Xp(7)/(a, Chroina, Color). The Prop Erty By Virtue Of Which Certain Combinations Of Lenses And Prisms Refract A Beam Of White Light Without Producing Dispersion Of Certain Colors. (see Diseersiox.) Newton, Misled By Imperfect Experiments, Concluded That Dispersion Could Not Be Annulled Without Annulling ...

Acidaspis
Acidaspis, Asq-das'pls (gk. Akis, Spine Tiaric,aspis, Shield). A Peculiar Genus Of Trilobites Found In Rocks Of Silurian And Devonian Age In Nearly All Parts Of The World. The Individuals Are, As A Rule, Small, And Are .remarkable Because Of The Spiny Ornamenta Tion Of The Dorsal Shield Or Carapace. The ...

Acids
Acids, Its'idz (lat. Acidus, Sour). A Large And Important Class Of Chemical Substances. They All Contain Hydrogen, Part Or All Of Which Is Replaced By Metals When The Acids Are Brought In Contaet With Metallic Hydroxides. The Com Pounds Formed By Substituting Metals For The Hydrogen Of Acids Are Termed ...

Acireale
Acireale, :vela-11-51a (skil. Loci). A City In Sicily, 525 Feet Above The Sea. At The Mouth Of The River A•i, Which Descends From Mount Etna To Form A Small Harbor Here, 9 Miles Northeast Of Catania (nap: Italy, K 10). The Broad Streets, Spacious Houses, And High Timers Rest On ...

Acknowledgment 1
Acknowledgment. ( 1.) An Admission By A Person That Lie Is Owing A Debt Or Is Subject To A Liability. Which, Lint For Such Acknowledg Ment, Wonbl Be Nu Red By The Statute Of Limita Tions. It Need Not He In Any Set Form Of Words, But It Must Be ...

Acmite
Ac'mite (gk. Alone, Point, Edge). A Sodium-iron Silicate That Crystallizes In The Monoclinic System, Has A Vitreous To Resinous Lustre, And Is Red To Brown And Green In Color. It Occurs In The Older Rocks In Sweden And Greenland, And In The United States Minute Crystals Have Been Found In ...

Acontius
Acontius, (gk. ' Akovrtoc, A Kontios). The Hero Of A Classic Love Story Con Tained In A Lost Poem Of Callimachus, And Also Given By Ovid (hero/des Xx. 21). He Is A Youth From Ceos. Who. Being At. Delos And In Love With Cydippe (q.v.), Throws At Her Feet An ...

Acoustic Properties Oe Balls
Acoustic Properties Oe Balls. \vhen An Organ-pipe Or Any Elastic Body Is Sounded In A Room And Then Suddenly Stopped, It Is Noticed That The Sound Does Not Instantly Cease, But Con Tinues For Several Seconds. This Is Called Rever Beration; And The Acoustic Success Of A Room De Pends ...

Acoustics
Acoustics, N-kon'stiks Or (gk. Aeov Akoust Ikos, Relating To Hearing, Front Cm, Nkoucin, To Hear). The Name Applied To The Science Of The Phenomena Of Sound. The Name "sound" Is Given To The Sensation Perceived By The Auditory Nerves, And It Is A Matter Of Every Day Experience That The ...

Acrobat
Acrobat (gk. One Walking On Tiptoe, From Dorm., Akros, Highest, + Gairetv, Bainein, To Go). The Presence Of The Word In Very Early Times In Most European Languages May Be Taken To Indicate The Remote Origin Of The Exer Cise Which Called The Term Into Use. Originally It Was Doubtless ...

Acroterion
Ac'rote'rion (gk. Likporiiptov, Akrote Nion, The Summit Or Extremity). A Term In Arehi Tecture For A Statue Or Other Ornament, Often A Palmette, Placed On The Apex Or At One Of The Lower Angles Of A Pediment. Act (lat. Actns, The Doing Or Performing Of A Thing; Actum, A Public ...

Act Of Parliament
Act Of Parliament, Parli-ment. A Res Olution Or Law Passed By All The Three Branches Of The English Legislature, The King (or Queen), Lords, And Commons; Or, As It Is Formally Ex Pressed, "by The King's Majesty, By And With The Advice And Consent Of The Lords Spiritual And Temporal, ...

Acta
Ac'ta Di•usa, Port•u, L'atuna, Or Pt•n Lica (acts Daily, Polu Municipal, Or Public). A Sort Of Daily Chronicle Of Events Published In Ancient Rome Giving Summaries Of The Prineipal Legal And Political Orations, The Decisions Of The Courts, News From The Army, And The Latest Gossip Of The Town. They ...

Actinograph
Actin'ograph ( Gk. Nitric, Akt Is, Ray + Ypa Etc, Graphcia, To Write). An Instrument For Recording Automatically The Chemical Effects Of Radiations From Any Source, Especially The Sun. Formerly The Actinic Or Chemical, The Visual Or Optic, And The Thermal Or Heat Rays Were Spoken Of As The Components ...

Actinometer
Ac'tinom'eter (gk. Krie, Oktis, Ray + Larpor,a/ctron.measure). An Instrument For Meas Uring The Effect Of The Sun's Rays In Producing Chemical, I.e., Actinic Streets. As Originally Devised By Sir .john Herschel, This Title Was Applied By Him To A Thermometer Whose Bulb Was Filled With A Blue Solution Of Ammonia ...

Actinomycosis
Ac'tinomyco'sis (nk. Nn-,t, 01 Is, Ray, ± //ix/a., Inyk(r's,, Mushroom. Fungus, Ex Crescence). •iaw, Or Bin A Specific, Infectious Disease Produced By A Parasitic Micro Known As The Izay Fungus I Leiiiimoly Cer 1,0 R Is). The Micro-organism Causes Local Affections In The Form Of Tumor. (.1 Gm Inn In) ...

Action
Action 1 Lit. Octio„ A Doing, Performing, An Action, Suit, Process). Term Which, In Its Broadest Sense, Includes Every Lawful Proceeding, In A. Court Of Justice For The Enforcement Or Protection Of A Right, The Redress Or Prevention Of A Wrong,, Or The Punishment Of A Public Offense. Formerly The ...

Action
Action. In Psychology, A Term Used Broadly To Cover All Forms Of Muscular Move Ment. We Speak, E.g.. Of The Action Of The Heart, Or Reflex Action, Etc., As Well As Of Impul Sive Or Voluntary Action. There Is, However, A Growing Tendency To Reserve The Word Action For Such ...

Actium
Ac'tium, Ak'shistm, Now Arri. A Town And Primontory On The West Coast Of Greece At The Entrance Of The Ambraeian Gulf, Now The Gulf Of Arta. It Is Memorable For The Sea Fight Which Took Place Near It September 2d, 31 N.c„ Between 6etavius (afterward The Emperor Augustus) And Marens ...

Acts Of The Apostles
Acts Of The Apos'tles (gk. Ri:w 'a 70076%. Wv, P R Pos 1 01 11 . The Fifth Hook Of The New Testament. The Composition Of Which Is Ascribed By Tradition And By The Gene•ral Consent Of Critics To The Same Author As That Of The Third Flospel, To Which ...

Adam
Adam. The Name Of A Distinguished Fancily Of British Architects Of The Eighteenth Century. William Adani (1.1718) Was The Author Of The Library And University Of Glasgow And Of Many Public And Private Buildings At Dundee (town Hall) And Edinburgh. His Four Sons. Especially Lloitt:ar (1727-92) And 'balms ( 1-1794), ...

Adam
Ad'am. The Name Given In The Book Of Gene Sis To The First Man. The Word Adam Is Orig Inally A Common Noun Applied Both To A Single Human Being And To Mankind In General; Hence, As A Designation For The First Man The Old Testa Ment Almost Invariably Attaches ...

Adam Of Bremen
Ad'am Of Bremen. A German His Torian. He Was Born, Probably, At Aleissen. Sax Ony (the Date Uncertain), And Came To Bremen In 1007 Front And Became A Canon Of The Cathedral, And In 1008 Principal Of The Cathedral School. He Won Perpetual Fame By Writing (between 1072 And 10711) ...

Adams
Adams, Jottn (1772-1863). An American Teacher. He Was Born In Connecticut, Gradu Ated At Yale, 1795, And After Leaching For Fifteen Years In Seeondary Schools In New Jersey And His Native State, Beeanie Principal Of Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. That Place Lie Filled For Twenty-three Years, Resigning In 1833. Beside' ...

Adams_2
Adams, Wilbiam The First Englishman In Japan, Whose Romantic Story Is Closely Connected With The Opening Of That Em Pire. He Was Born In Kent, Near The Mouth Of The Thames. Ilaving Entered The Service Of Some Dutch Merchants, He Sailed, In 159s, For The East, From The Texel, As ...

Addison
Ad'dison, Josern An Eng Lish Poet And Essayist. Lie Was The Son Of Lance Lot Addison, A Clergyman Of The Church Of Eng Land, And Nv:is Born At Milstein, Near Amesbury, In Wiltshire, May I. 1672. After Attending The Charterhouse And Other Schools, He Entered Queen's College. Oxford, In 1687. ...

Adelaide
Ad'elaide, The Capital Of Smith Aus Tralia, On The Torrens, 7 Miles By Rail From Its Harbor, Port Adelaide, On The Gulf Of St. Vin Cent, And 505 Miles Northwest Of Melbourne (map: Australia, Ip 5). It Has A Large Trade In Agricultural Produce And Wool; Lead And Cop. Per ...

Aden
Aden, Irden Or Wen. A Peninsula And Town Near The Southwestern End Of Arabia, Situated In Lat. 12° N., And Long. 45° 5' E., And Connected With The Mainland By A Narrow Sandy Isthmus (map: Asia, 0 7). In A Broader Sense The Name Of Aden Is Applied To The ...

Adirondacks
Ad'iron'dacks. The Name Of A Group Of • Mountains In Northeastern New York. They Lie West Of The Main Axis Of The Appalachians, As Represented In The Green Mountains Of Vermont, And Constitute Quite An Independent Mountain System. The Name Adirondack Is Applied In A Wider Sense To That Area ...

Adjective
Adjective (lat. Adjcctivum, From Ad. To Jacere, To Throw, Add, Literal Translation Of The Gk.ilriberm6v, Epithet Ikon, Something Added). One Of The Parts Of Speech In Grammar, A Word Joined To A Substantive To Extend Its Meaning And To Limit Its Application. When Tall Is Joined To Man There Are ...

Administration
Admin'istra'tion (lat. Ad, To + Mini Strare, To Attend, Manage). In General, The Man Agement Or Conduct Of Any Business: Especially, In Politics, Executive Government. In Its Broad Est Sense, In Public Affairs, It Means The Full Ac Tivity Of The Government Engaged In The Practical Exercise Of Its Authority ...

Administration_2
Administration- As Provided By Legislative Enactment For Cities Of The Second Class. The Government Is Vested In A Mayor, Elected Bien Nially: A City Council, The President Being Elected At Large And The Aldermen By Wards; And Admin Istrative Departments Constituted As Follows: Finance—comptroller, Treasurer, And A Board Of Estimate ...

Administrative Law
Admin'istra'tive Law. That Part Of The Tall' Which Regulates The Of The Will Of The State As Expressed By The Authorities Which Are Permitted By The Governmental Tem To Express That Will, Particularly The Legis Lature. Since It Is Necessary Under All Gove•n Mental Systems That Authorities Be Formed For ...

Admiral
Admiral. The Title Of A Naval Officer Of The Highest Rank. The Word Is Derived From The Arabic Amir, Or Amir Al- ('ord, Or Chief Of The), Forming The First Part Of Many Compound Words, Such As Amir Al-ma'minin, "commander Of The Faithful:" Amir Al-umara, "commander Of The Forces;" Amir ...

Admiralty Law
Admiralty Law. The System Of Law And Procedure Relating To Maritime Transactions. It Owes Its Name To The Fact That Originally It Nv:1 S Wdmiuisteted In England By The Lord High Admiral. Not Only Its Rules Of Substantive Law But Its Procedure Were Adopted From The Civil Law, And From ...

Admission
Admission. In The Law Of Evidence, A Confession Or Acknowledgment Of A Party To An Action, Made At Any Time, As To The Existence Of A Fact. They Are Admissible In Evidence Against Him At The Trial Of The Action, But Never In His Favor In Any Case When The ...

Adoption
Adoption Adoptio, A Taking Or Re Ceiving Of One In Place Of A Child, From To Optarr, To Choose, Select). A Legal Institution Of Much Importance In Early Society, Because Of The Importance Attached To The Perpetuation Of Household Worship (particularly The Worship Of Deceased Ancestors) ; Also Because Before ...

Adrian
Adrian. The Name Of Six Popes, Two Of Them Of Considerable Interest. Adrian I., Pope 772-795, Invited Charlemagne To Enter Italy. His Letters Are In Migne, Pat. Lat., Xeviii.—adri 11., Pope S67-872. His Letters Are In Migne, Pat. Lat., Cxxii. And Ennix.—.adrian Iii. (agapctus), Pope 884-885. Be Was The First ...

Adrianople
A'driano'ple (gk. 'atiptav67ro2uc, Dadria Wvolis, The City Of Hadrian, Turk. Edirnch) (map: Turkey In Europe, F 4). A City Of Eu Ropean Turkey, In Ancient Thrace. It Is Situated On The Maritza (the Ancient Ilebrus), Where That River Is Joined By The Arda And The Tunja. About 140 Miles Northwest ...

Adulteration
Adul'tera'tion (lat. Arlulterare, To De File, To Falsify). The Act Of Intentionally Debas Ing Articles Offered For Sale, By Abstracting From Them Some Valuable Constituent, Or By Adding To Them Some Worthless, More Or Less Deleterious, Foreign Substance. Adulteration Has Been Prac Ticed Throughout The Civilized World Since Early In ...

Adultery
Adultery (lat. Mu/ter/um, The Violation Of Another's Bed, From Ad, To ± Alter, Other). "the Voluntary Sexual Intercourse Of A Married Person With A Person Other Than The Offender's Husband Or Wife." By The Canon Law, The Lips Band And Wife Were Placed On The Same Footing; And This View ...