V. PERIOD OF ITET.T.F,NIO DISSEMINATION AND DECLINE.—The development of Macedon under Philip and the conquests of Alexander change the entire aspect of the Greek world. We have henceforth to consider a Hellenism synonymous with civilization rather than the geographical Hellas with her outlying colonies.
In Greece itself the greatest influence is exerted at the opening of this period by Lysippus of Sieyon, who not only continued the prestige of the Argive-Sicyonian school, but also introduced a new canon in statuary, making the figure more slender and the bead proportionally smaller than in the preceding art and forming a marked con trast to the canon of Polyeletus. Ills work is known to us from copies of his "Apoxyomenos" to youth scraping himself with the strigil ) ; and a marble copy at Delphi of a series of stat ues of the family of Daochos, of which the bronze originals were at Pharsalia. He was also a sort of court-sculpto• to Alexander the Great, as Apelles was his painter. his influ ence extends immediately to Rhodes in Chares of Limit's, one of his best-known pupils, and artist of the famous of Rhodes." The splendid "Victory of Samoth•ace," now in the Louvre, which may be dated about the begin ning of the Third Century. is one of the great est monuments of this period, and deserves to be ranked with such splendid figures as the "Victory of Pasmius of Mende,' set up at Olympia a een tury or more earlier• and with the Victories from the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, at Athens.
The Perganame art, cultivated especially under the Attalid kings. and of which we see such as tonishing examples in the frieze of the great altar of Zons at Pergamon (q.v.), of the earlier part of the Second Century representing a co lossal gigantomachy, exhibits great mastery of technique, violence of action, and the free ex pression of physical suffering, the two latter be ing qualities of sculpture rather than of painting. Somewhat earlier than the great altar are the well-known statues of the "Dying Gaul" (mis called "Gladiator"), and the Gaul and his wife in the Lmlovisi Gallery. As intimated above, it is the grand finale of Greek sculp ture, in which this art still appears great, though overstepping its clue bounds. To this
period also belongs probably the development of the Rhodian School. though some scholars pre fer to date the great product of that school, the Laoco6n group, now in the Vatican, at the end of the Second Century or beginning of the First Century MC. To this school in its Asiatic de velopment belongs the great work of Apollonius and Tauriseus of Tralles, the "Farnese Bull." Single statues which seem to belong to this period. but cannot be assigned with certainty to any definite artist, are the "Aphrodite of Melos," one of the most beautiful works of the later classical art ; the "Apollo Belvedere" (q.v.) ; and the "Torso of the Belvedere." a noble fragment, whose correct restoration. though often at tempted, has not yet been found. To this period also belongs the full development of genre scenes, though this begins still earlier. Such are the group of the "Boy and the Goose," the "Drunken Old Woman," the "Fisherman." and especially the large mass of reliefs. which seem to owe their origin to Alexandria, and to be the product of the same tendeneies which led to the bucolic poet ry. Portraiture also flourished, not only in statues and busts of the living. but in ideal portraits of the great men of the past, as Homer and Anacreon.
With the painting of the Alexandrian Period we come more closely into contact than with the earlier art in this kind through the wall decora tions of Herculaneum, Pompeii. and Rome, which follow the traditions of this epoch. Apelles (q.v.) of Colophon represents the highest devel opment of Greek painting. His idealized por traits of Alexander were as famous as Lysippus's statues. Protoovnes of Camms, who worked at Rhodes about the end of the Fourth Century, is also distinguished in this department. Anti philus at the court of Ptolemy is characterized as "most eminent in facility." But the list of great Greek painters closes with Theon of Samos, of the Third Century (cf. the article "Malerei," in Baumeister, op. cit.).