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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Luigi 1495 1556 Alamanni
Alamanni, Luigi (1495-1556). An Italian Poet. He Was Born In Florence, And, Like Dante. Was Destined To Spend His Best Years In Exile. The Alamarmi Were Zealous Partisans Of The Medici, Whose Favor Luigi Himself Enjoyed Until Some Fancied Grievance Led Him To Conspire Against The Life Of The Cardinal ...

Ma King
Ma King. Cese ( Swiss Cheese) Is Often Found Adul Terated With Foreign Fats, Potato Flour, And Cer Tain Coloring Substances. The Fraud Can Be Detected By A Chemical Examination. See Cheest.:. Bread Is Often Adulterated, For The Purpose Of Improving Its Color, With Alum Or With Sulphate Of Copper. ...

Manuel De Alcudia
Alcudia, :manuel De Crodoy. See Cod0y, Manuel, Duke Of Alcudia. Alcuin, 51'kwin, Or Flaccits Albintjs (v. 735-so4). The Most Distinguished Scholar Of The Eighth Century, The Confidant And Adviser Of Charlemagne. He Was Born At York, Was Edu Cated Under The Care Of Archbishop Ecbert, And His Relative, .:elbert, And ...

Manufactures
Manufactures. Recent Years Have Clearly Demonstrated That Alabama Possesses A Combi Nation Of Advantages For Manufacturing Enter Prise Such As Are Scarcely Found In Any Other Part Of The Country, And Which Promise To Place Her In The Front Rank Of Manufacturing States. The Raw Material And The Auxiliary Agencies ...

Manufactures_2
Manufactures. The Manufacturing Indus Tries Of Argentina Are Largely In Foreign Hands. This Is Especially True Of The Larger Industries, Requiring Investments Of Considerable Capital And Management On A Large Scale, Such As Elec Trie-light And Power Plants, Flour Mills, Smelting Works, Etc. The Census Of 1895 Re Ports In ...

Marcus 83 30 Antonius
Antonius, Marcus (83-30 R.c.). A Roman Triumvir, Commonly Known As Mark Antony, Descendant Of One Of The Oldest Patrician Fami Lies. He Was The Son Of The Prwtor, M. Antonius Creticus, And On The Side Of His Mother, Julia, Was Related To Julius Cesar. Ilis Youth Was Wasted In Dissipation, ...

Marine Life
Marine Life. Afore Than One Hundred And Twenty-five Species Of Fishes Have Been Taken Within The Arctic Circle, And Valuable Fisheries Exist On The Northern Coasts Of Russia, In The Waters About. Spitzbergen And Nova Zembla, And Might Be Organized North Of Bering Strait. The Most Important Arc Cod, Halibut, ...

Mated Aleman
Aleman, Mated. A Famous Spanish Novelist, Horn At Seville About The Middle Of The Sixteenth Century. Little Is Known Of His Life Except That He Took His Bachelor's Degree At Seville In 1565, Was Appointed To The Royal Treas Ury In Position Which He Resigned After Twenty Years As Poor ...

Means Of Communication
Means Of Communication. Routes Of Travel Across The Andes Are Few In Number, The Passes Are Very High, And The Roads Traversing Them Are, As A Rule, Very Bad. • Communication Be Tween The Peoples On The Two Sides Of The Moun Tains Is Slight. The High Land Between The ...

Meath8
Meath...8 Of Peace, And Congress Of Aix-la Chapelle. Thc First Peace Of Aix-la-chapelle Ended The War Carried On Between France And Spain For The Possession Of The Spanish Nether Lands, Known As The War Of Devolution. On The Death Of Philip Iv., Louis Nav. Laid Claim To A Large Portion ...

Mechanical Flight
Mechanical Flight. Attempts To Imitate The Flight Of Birds By Mechanical Contrivances Antedate The Balloon By Several Hundred Years. Several Very Early Instances Are On Record Of Persons Who, Apparently By Some Paraehnte-like Contrivance, Descended Obliquely From High Towers To A Considerable Distance; Thus In The Thirteenth Or Fourteenth Century. ...

Metal Products
Metal Products. Large Numbers Of Metallic Artifacts Have Been Found In The Mounds Of The Eastern United States, In The Cemeteries Of The Arid Region. In The Crypts Of Mexico, And In The Imams Of South America. The Prevailing Ma Terial, Especially In North America, Is Copper, Evidently Found Native ...

Methods And Results
Methods And Results. The Result Of Fedi Ner's Work Was To Modify The Assertions Of Zeising And Other Theorists. A Decided Prefer Ence For The Proportion Of The Golden Section Was Found With Certain Figures, Particularly The Rectangle. For The Simple Sectioning Of A Line, On The Other Hand, Preference ...

Military Ballooning
Military Ballooning. The First Use Of Bal Loons For This Purpose Was Made Under Time First French Republic By The Chemist Guyton De Mor Veau, And Two Companies Of Military Balloonists Were Organized The Command Of De Coutelle And Sent To The Field. The L'entreprenant, A Bal Loon 27 Feet ...

Mineral Resources
Mineral Resources. The Southern Limit Of The Mineral Region May Be Indicated By A Line Passing Through Pikeville, Tuscaloosa, And We Tumpka To Columbus, Ga. Within This Area Are The Comparatively Insignificant Gold Deposits Of Randolph County, And Three Fields Of Bituminous Coal Over 8660 Square Miles In Extent, Named ...

Mn Ali
Ali, Mn Anu Talm, Tale]) (c. 600-661). Fourth Caliph, Cousin Of And One Of His First Converts. Ali Became A Staunch Adherent Of Mohammed, And Fought Bravely And Vigorously For Him. On The Death Of Mohammed It Was Expected That Ali, Who Had Married Fatima, The Daughter Of The Prophet, ...

Modern Exploration
Modern Exploration. Thus Far The Portu Guese Had Been Almost Alone In The Exploration Of Africa, But In The Second Half Of The Eight Eenth Century A New Era Of Discovery Began—an Era In Which Men Of Several Nationalities Have Had A Share, And By The Results Of Which Several ...

Naval Apprentice
Apprentice, Naval. Apprentices Are Enlisted For The United States Naval Service Between The Ages Of 15 And 17 To Serve Until They Reach 21 Years Of Age. Minors Between The Ages Of 15 And 17 Are Not Enlisted Without The Con Sent Of Their Parents Or Guardians. The Appli Cant ...

Nests And Nest Building
Nests And Nest Building. In Their Nest Building Ants Differ From All Other Social Hymen Optera. The Nests Or Combs Of Bees Are Divided Into Even Compartments Or Cells, Whose Walls Are Made Of Wax, While Those Of Social Wasps Are Built Of A Papery Pulp, Derived From Masticated Weather-worn ...

Ni Icolayevitch 1518 81
Alexander Ii., Ni Icolayevitch (1518 81). Emperor Of Russia From 1855 To 1881, Son Of Nicholas 1. He Was Horn April 29, Isis, And Received A Thorough Education And Military Train Ing,. He Traveled In Germany. And In 1841 Mar Ried Princess Maria Of Hesse-darmstadt. He Also Journeyed Through Russia. ...

Nio Dissemination And V
V. Period Of Itet.t.f,nio Dissemination And Decline.—the Development Of Macedon Under Philip And The Conquests Of Alexander Change The Entire Aspect Of The Greek World. We Have Henceforth To Consider A Hellenism Synonymous With Civilization Rather Than The Geographical Hellas With Her Outlying Colonies. In Greece Itself The Greatest Influence ...

Nitis
Nitis, (gk. Aniv, Od(n, Gland; Lat. /yrapho, Water). A Term Used In Medicine To Indicate Inflammation Of The Lymphatic Glands. Lymphangitis Is Inflammation Of The Lymphatic Vessels Which Lead Into And Bind Together These Glands. In Both Structures The Inflamma Tion May Assume An Acute Or Chronic Form. Acute Lymphadenitis ...

North America
North America. In North America The Cor Dillera Develops Its Greatest Breadth And Complex Ity In The Main Body Of The United States. Here It Includes A Broad Plateau 1000 Miles In Width, With An Elevation Of From 5000 To 10,000 Feet, On Which Stand A Succession Of Mountain Ranges ...

Organization
Organization. In The United States There Were In 1901 Fifty-seven Stations, Receiving Annually $720,000 Front The National Government Under The Hatch Act Of 1557, And More Than $500,000 From State Governments And Other Sources. They Employed Over 700 Persons In Ad M Inistra T Ion And Inquiry, And Issued That ...

Other
Other Erropean States. Germany Has No Uni Form System Of Agricultural! Education. Higher Courses Are Maintained In Agricultural Insti Tutes, And Professorships Are Connected With Many Of The Universities. E.g., Those At Kimigs Berg, Breslau, Halle, (bittingen, Leipzig, Rostock, And Jena. The Agricultural High School At Ber The Academy At ...

Other Countries
Other Countries. In Europe The Cultivation Of The Sugar-beet Has Become A Prominent Industry In Germany, Austria-mingary, France, And Rus Sia, And Of Some Importance In Belgium And The Netherlands. Germany Grows More Than One Third Of The Product, And The Four Countries More Than Nine-tenths Of It. The Vine ...

Paitna
Paitna. The Fauna Of Africa Is Remarkable For Its Homogeneity, For The Continental Range Of A Great Number Of Its Groups And Species. Due To The Absence Of Extensive Mountain Barriers, And For Its Remarkable Alliance With The Faume Of The Other Divisions Of The Southern Hemi Sphere. Africa — ...

Passes And Routes
Passes And Routes. The Passage Of The Western Alps Is Made By Five Principal Roads: (1) The Military Road, La Corniche, A Coast Road At The Foot Of The Alps From Nice To Genoa, Parallel To Which A Railway Now Runs. (2) The Road Over The Col-di-tenda, Between Nice And ...

Pavlovitch 1777 1825 Alexanderi
Alexander I., Pavlovitch ( 1777-1825 ) . Emperor Of Russia From 1801 To 1825. Ile Was Horn December 23 (12 Old Style), 1777, At Saint Peternburg, And Was The Son Of Paul 1. And _maria Ecodo•o•na (born Dorothea Of Wtirttemberg). The Violent And Arbitrary Reign Of Alexander's Predecessor Produced A ...

Pcuiatory System
Pcuiatory System. The Nervous System Consists Of A Pair Of Gang Lia Lying Above The Oesophagus, Known As The Brain, From Which The Nerve Trunks Arise. Usual Ly There Are Two Such Trunks, Which Pass Down Ward And Backward Around The (esophagus, Meet Ing In The Mid-ventral Line And Running ...

Pedro De Alvarado
Alvarado, Pedro De ( ? — 1541). A Spanish Adventurer, A Companion Of Cortes, And Afterward Conqueror Of Guatemala. He Was Born At Badajoz, In Spanish Estremadura. In 1517 Or 1518, He Sailed For The New World, And In The Latter Year Was Dispatched From Cuba, By Veins Inez. The ...

Peru
Peru. In Peru, Bolivia, And The Northern Part Of Chile, The System Is Much Broader And More Complex. The Andes Of Peru Consist Of Three Ranges, The Two Westernmost Being The Maritime Or Black, And The Central Cordillera, Trending Parallel To One Another And To The Coast, And In The ...

Physical
Physical Divisions. America Is Divided In To Two Continents, North And South America. Separated In Part By The Caribbean Sea And The Gulf Of Mexico, And Connected By The Narrow Isthmus Of Panama, 30 Miles In Width. North America Has An Area Of About S,300,000 Square Miles, And South America ...

Physical Features
Physical Features. The Surface Of Afghan Istan Is Exceedingly Mountainous, A Great Part Of It Being Covered With The Mighty Chain Of Hindu-kush And Its Offshoots. The Hindu-kush Extends In A Northeast And Southwest Direction For About 400 Miles To The Irak And Shibar Passes, Where It Assumes The Name ...

Physiography
Physiography. The Entire Northern Part Is Traversed By A Section Of The Atlas Noun Thins, Which Cover The Northern Part Of Africa From The Atlantic To The Gulf Of Gabes. The Mountain System Of Algeria May Be Divided Into Two Principal Chains, Running Parallel To Each Other And Connected By ...

Physiological And Poisonous Action
Alcohol, Physiological And Poisonous Action Or. Alcohol In A Concentrated Form Ex Erts A Local Irritant Action On The Membranes And Tissues Of The Animal Body,mainly Through Its Ab Stracting Water From The Tissues. According To Its Greater Or Less Dilution, The Quantity In Which It Is Administered, The Emptiness ...

Pileopiiitee
Pileopiiite.e. The Brown Alga Also Form A Very Large Group, Which Contains Diverse Lines Of Development, The Forms Ranging From Simple Filaments To The Gigantic Kelp Or Devil's Apron (q.v.), And Highly Specialized Rock Weeds. This Class Also Presents Excellent Illustrations Of The Principal Stages In The Evolution Of Sex. ...

Population
Population. The Natives Of Alaska Consisted Of Several Different Peoples. The Bulk Of North Ern Alaska And Its Coasts Were Originally O••u Pied By People Of Eskimo Stock. These Were In Contact With The Athahascan Indians, Who Occupied The Mountains Eastward, The Valley Of The Yukon, And The South Coast ...

Population
Population. The Location Of The People Be Tween The Nile And The Red Sea Permitted The Commingling Of Hamites From The North. Him Varitic Semites From Asia. And Negroes From The South. The Abyssinians Are Of Medium Stature; In Color They Vary From Brunette To Translucent Black. The Principal Language ...

Preliminary Examination Of Inorganic
Preliminary Examination Of Inorganic Substances. When A Substance Is Submitted For Qualitative Analysis, The Chemist First Notes Its Color And Form—the Latter With The Aid Of A Simple Magnifying Glass. The Substance Is Then Usually Subjected To An Examination By Means Of The Blowpipe (q.v.) Or The Non-luminous Gas Flame. ...

Products
Products. Algeria Is Chiefly An Agricultural Country, And Its Importance Is Increasing At A Steady Rate. A Peculiar Feature About Algeria Is The Proportion Of Europeans Engaged In Agri Cultural Pursuits. In 1897 The Total Agricul Tural Population Of The Colony Was Given As 3,044,614 (of A Total Population Of ...

Qualitative Inorganic Analysis
Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. Before A Systematic Qualitative Analysis Of A Solid Sub Stance Can Be Undertaken, The Substance Must Be Obtained In Solution. Sometimes Substances Sub Mitted For Analysis Are Found To Be Directly Sol Uble In Water. In Most Cases, However, Substances Cannot Be Dissolved Unless Transformed Chemi Cally. ...

Quantitative Analysis
Quantitative Analysis. Before Beginning A Quantitative Analysis The Chemist Must Know, In Part At Least, The Qualitative Composition Of The Substance To Be Analyzed. This Knowledge May Be Obtained By A Special Qualitative Analysis, Or, More Frequently. From The Results Of Numerous Analyses Of Similar Substances. Methods Of Quantitative Analysis ...

Races Of Asia
Races Of Asia, Occompallyillg Asia. Politically, Arabia Is Divided As Follows: The Sinai Peninsula Forms A Dependency Of Egypt. The Western Coast, Forming The Two Provinces Of Hejaz And Yemen. As Well As The Region Of Al Hasa, On The Eastern Coast, Belong To Turkey. Oman Is Administered By An ...

Religions
Religions. Fifty-eight Per Cent. Of The Popu Lation. :iceording To The Estimate Of 11. P. Beach, Are Devotees Of The Native Religions. Which Arc Charaeterized By These Features: (1) Belief In Some Sort Of A Supreme God, Who, In A Vaguely Conceived Way, Creates And Rules All. (2) Wor Ship ...

Rest Iiritae C
Rest Iiritae C. The Began With The Organization Of The Society Of Improvers In The Knowledge Of Agriculture In Scotland, In 1723. By A Company Of Landholders. This Society Existed For More Than Twenty Years And Did Much Valuable Work. Its Sciect Transactions. Collected By Mr. Maxwell, Were Published In ...

Romanesque
Romanesque. Meanwhile Europe Had Enjoyed The Architectural Revival Of The Romanesque Period. First Germany And Italy, Then France, And Finally England And Spain Had Felt The New Artistic Currents. There Were No National Styles, Far Less Was There Any Unity Throughout Europe. Each Province Had Special Characteristics. In Parts Of ...

Saint 625 704 Adamnan
Ad'amnan, Saint (625-704). An Irish Abbot, Properly Adam, Of Which Adamnan Is A Diminutive. Be Was Born At Drumhome, South West Donegal, The Extreme Northwest County, About The Year 025, But Entered The Monastery Of Lona. Ills Father. Ronan, Was The Great Gi Eat-grandson Of The Uncle Of St. Columba, ...

Saint Ambrose
Am'brose, Saint (c. 340-397). One Of The Most Celebrated Of The Ancient Fathers Of The Church. And One Of The Four Doctors Of The West Ern Church. He Was Born About The Year 340, At Tr&ves, Where His Father, As Prefect Of Gaul, Was Wont To Reside. According To His ...

Salomon August Andree
Andree, Salomon August (1854—). A Swedish Scientist And Ai;ronant, Born At Grenna. He Studied At The Technical College In Stockholm, And Was A Member Of The Swedish Meteorological Expedition In 1882-83. Between 1892 And 1895 He Made Several Balloon Journeys, And Finally De Cided To Attempt To Reach The North ...

Samuel 1722 1803 Adams
Adams, Samuel (1722-1803). One Of The Leading Men In The Promotion Of The American Revolution. Lle Was Born In Boston, Mass., Sep Tember 27, 1722, Of An Aristocratic Family, And, Like John Adams, The Second President Of The United States, Was Descended From I Lenry Adams, A Puritan Emigrant. He ...

Semitic
Semitic. In The Semitic Family Nve Have The Pluenician Alphabet, Used By The Carthaginians Along The Northern Coast. The Punic And Later Neo-punic Charaeters Were Modifications Of The Phoenician, And Are Distinguished By Special Characteristics. The Arabic Character Is Now Used Wherever Islam Has Become The Prevailing Religion: But It ...

Sir Archibald 1792 1867 Alison
Alison, Sir Archibald (1792-1867). A British Lawyer, Historian, And Writer. Lie Was Born At Kenley, Shropshire. December 29, 1792. In 1805 He Entered Edinburgh University, Where He Obtained Highest Honors In Greek And Mathe Matics. Be Was Called To The Bar In 1814, And, Owing To Friendly Influence, Presently Made ...

South America
South America. The Cordillera Of The Andes Follows The Western Coast Of South America In A Continuous Mountain System From Cape Horn To The Isthmus Of Panama. Leaving A Narrow Strip Of Lowland Between Its Base And The Coast No Where Much More Than A. Hundred Miles In Breadth. In ...

Spherical Aberration
Aberration, Spherical. A Term Used In Geometrical Optics (see Light) To Express The Difference In Path And Effect. Of Rays Of Light Incident Perpendicularly And Obliquely Upon A Mirror Or Upon A Surface Separating Two Portions Of Transparent Matter, E.g., Upon A Surface Of Water. If A Source Of Light ...

St 1033 1109 Anselivi
An'selivi Of Canterbury, St. (1033 1109) . A Scholastic Philosopher, Horn At Aosta, In Piedmont. He Led At First A Dissipated Life, And. Like Ab6lard, Wandered Through France, After The Fashion Of The Scholars Of Those Days, Disputing Wherever He Could Find An Adversary. Attracted By The Reputation Of Lanfrane, ...

St Of Padua 1195 1231
Antony, St.. Of Padua (1195-1231). A Famous Saint. He Was Born At Lisbon, Por Tugal. August 15, 1195, Baptized As Ferdinand, But Took The Name Antony When Lie Entered The Order Of St. Francis. In 1220, After Being A Canon Of St. Vincent's In Lisbon. And Already Noted For Biblical ...

St Of Thebes 251 356
An'tony, St.. Of Thebes (251-356). The Father Of Monastic Asceticism: Known As The Great. He Was Born About The Year 251 A.d.. At Roma. Near Horaklea. In Upper Egypt. His Par Ents Were Both Wealthy And Pious, And Be Stowed On Him A Religious Education. Having, In Obedience To What ...

States Of Aggregation
Ag'grega'tion, States Of (lat. Ad, To Gregarc, To Collect Into A Thud:). The Three States, Yascoms, Liquid, And Solid, In Whieh Matter Occurs. Substances : 'e Capable. Under Certain Conditions Of Temperature And Pressure, Of Existing In Any Of The Three States. Water. For Instance, May Be Gaseous (steam, Or ...

Stone Implements
Stone Implements. The Diversity Between The Archeology Of America And That Of Europe Cul Minates In The Classification Of Stone Implements And The Definition Of Culture-stages Based On This Classification. This Diversity Arises Naturally In The Modes Of Approach, That Of America Being Through Observation Of Primitive Customs, And That ...

Stone Structures Or
Stone Structures. Or Less Extensive Ruins Of Stone Structures, The Work Of Aborigines During Prehistoric Times, Occur In Many Districts Through Out The 'western Hemisphere; They Range From Simple Cairns Of Loose Pebbles To Imposing Tem Ples Of Wrought Stone. The Types Are Too Numer Ous For Easy Listing; But ...

Of Apollonius
Apollonius, Of A Native Of Tyana, In Cappadocia, Who Lived In The Time Of Christ. He Was A Zealous Follower Of The Doc Trines Of Pythagoras. Ile Traveled Through Asia To Nineveh And Babylon, Thence To India, Where, At The Court Of King Phraortes, He Met Darchas, The Principal Brahmin. ...

Or Acarus Folliculorum
Ac'arus Follic'ulo'rum, Or Dentodes-, Oc Stcatanon Follieulornm, The Commedo Mite. A Microscopic Parasite Residing In The Sebaceous Sacs And Hair Follicles Of The Human Skin. It Was First Described By Dr. Simon Of Berlin In 18-42, Under The Title Of Acarus Folliculorum, Which Was Suggested By The Eminent Zoologist, Eriehson ...

Or Agassiz
Agassiz, Or Prrneh Pron. 11'ga'si", Alexander An American Naturalist, Capitalist,. And Philanthropist. 110 Was Horn At Neuchatel, Switzerland, December 17, 1835, The Only Son Of Louis .1gassiz. Lie Joined His Father In Boston In 1849, And Gradu Ated At. Harvard College In 1855. 1 Le Was Made A Bachelor Of ...

Or Air Pump Air
Air Compres'sor, Or Air Pump. A Machine For Air. Compressed Air Is Used For A Multitude Of Purposes In The Arts And In Manufacturing, And To Catalogue All Of Its Uses Would Require A Great Amount Of Space. The Simplest Form Of Air Pump Is The Little Appara Tus For ...

Or Aivfara Si1tha Amarasinha
Am'arasin'ha, Or Aivfara-si1tha. A Celebrated Sanskrit Lexicographer Of Antiquity, Whose Vocabulary, .iina•a-ko.u. Or Treasury." Formed A Storehouse Ot Words In Early Times, And A Mine Of Information For Later Work Ers In The Field. This Glossator Is Commonly Called Simply Amara In The Native Commentaries; But His Title Siqilia Shows ...

Or Alexius I Alexis
Alexis, Or Alex'ius I., Comne'nus ( 1048-111s) (gk. Koninpor, Alexios Ncnos). One Of The Ablest Rulers Of The Byzan Tine Empire. He Was Born At Constantinople, The Son Of John Comnenus, Brother Of The Emperor Isaac Comnenus. In His Youth Alexis Gave Bril Liant Promise Of The Vigorous Military Genius ...

Or Alfred
Alfred, Or /elfred, Tue Great (849 901). King Of Wessex From 871 To 901. He Was Born At \vantage, In Berkshire. In 849. His Father Was _ethelwnlf, King Of The West Saxons. Alfred. The Youngest Of Five Sons, Succeeded To The Throne In 871, On The Death Of His Brother ...

Or Allodial Tenure Allodium
Allo'dium, Or Allodial Tenure (med. Lat. Probably From 0. H. G. Al, All + Prop Erty, Estate). The Free And Absolute Right Of Property In Land, Properly Opposed To Feudal Ten Ure (q.v.), Or The Holding Of Land In Subordina Tion To A Superior Owner. Blackstone Is Responsi Ble For ...

Or Altasan Altaban
Altaban, Or Altasan, A Head-hunting Tribe In Nueva Vizcaya Province, Luzon. See Philippines. Altai (51-ti') Mountains (tatar, Gold En Mountains, From Alt Nn, &tan, Golden; Chin. Keen-shan. Same Meaning). A Mountain Range Of Central Asia Forming Part Of The Elevated Re Gion On The Borders Of Siberia And The Chinese ...

Or Amperemeter Aivimeter
Aivimeter, Or Amperemeter (am Pere + Gk. Pirpov, Metron, Measure). An In Strument Which Is Used To Measure The Intensity Of An Electric Current, And Which Indicates This Quantity Directly In Amperes (q.v.). Ammeters Are Constructed In Numerous Forms, Which Are Based For The Most Part On The Galvanometer (q.v.), ...

Or Amsteldam Amsterdam
Amsterdam, Or Am'steldam (ear Lier Amstelledamme, The Dam Or Dyke Of The Amstel). The Chief City Of The Netherlands, Situ Ated At The Continence Of The Amstel With The V Or Lj (pronounced Eye), An Arm Of The Znyder Zee (map: Netherlands, C 2). Amsterdam Has An Area Of Square ...

Or Anchoret Anchorite
Anchorite, Or An'choret (gk. Avo Anachoreffs, A Recluse, Retired Man, From Tied, Ana, Back + Xupeiv, Chdrein, To Give Way, Retire). Literally, A. Person Who Withdraws From Society; A Hermit. The Name Was Applied To Those Hermits Who Began To Appear In The Christian Church In The Third Century, Living ...

Or Angostura Bark Angostura
Angostura Bark, Or Angostura Bark, Or Cusparia Bark. The Aromatic Bit Ter Bark Of Certain Trees Of The Natural Order Rubiaee:e And Tribe Cuspariea., Natives Of Vene Zuela And Other Countries Of South America. It Derives Its Name From The Town Of Angostura, Whence It Is Exported. It Is Said ...

Or Ansarians Ansaries
An'saries, Or Ansa'rians, But More Properly Nosairians. An Arab Sect Living In The Mountains Between The Northern Part Of Leb Anon And Antioch; Found Also In Antioch And In Various Places Along The Syrian Coast And In The Interior. The Origin Of The Sect Is Involved In Obscurity, Though It ...

Or Apostolic Apostolic Brethren
Apostolic Breth'ren, Or Apostolic!. The Name Given In Italy, Toward The End Of The Thirteenth Century. To One Of Those Sects Which, Animated By The Spirit Of An Arnold Of Brescia, Felt Constrained To Oppose The Worldly Tendencies Of The Church. Its Founder Was Gherardo Sega Relli, A Weaver In ...

Or Arkhangelsk Archangel
Archan'gel, Or Arkhangelsk, Lir Klin'gelsk. Of Russia, Between 61 ° And 71° N. Lat. And 28° To 66° E. Long., Extend Ing Along The White Sea And Arctic Ocean From Finland And Norway East To The Cral, And Bounded On The South By The Governments Of Vologda And Olonetz. It ...

Or Crab Crabapple
Crab Apple, Or Crab. A Term Applied Indis Criminately To All Small Fruits Of The Apple, Re Gardless Of Species. Sometimes, However, It Is Confined To A Class Of Small, Long-stemmed Fruits Belonging To Pyrevbaceata. Economically The Apple Is The Most Important Fruit Of Temperate Regions. It Is Grown Over ...

Or Dinietilyl Ketone Acetone
Acetone, Or Dinietilyl Ketone, A Colorless Organic Liquid Boiling At 5t; .3 C., And Having At 20° A Specific Gray Ity Of 0.7:11:. It Is Volatile And Inflammable, Has A Pleasant Ethereal Odor, Dissolves Various Organ Ic• Substances Such As Fats And Resins, And Mixes In All Proportions With Water, ...

Or Paco Alpaca
Alpaca, Or Pa'co (ar. Al, The + Peruv. Paca). One Of The Four Cameloid Mammals Of The Andean Region, Known Zo6logically As Lama Pacos. It Is Smaller Than The Llama, And More Nearly Resembles The Vicuna, Although Now Con Sidered To Have Been, Like The Llama, Derived From The Guanaco. ...

Or Tyre Apollonius
Apollonius, Or Tyre. The Hero Of A Greek Romance Now Lost, Which In A Latin Ver Sion Enjoyed Great Popularity In The Middle Ages, And Was Translated Into Almost All The Languages Of Western Europe. In It Are Related The Ro Mantic Adventures Which Befell Apollonius, Syrian Prince, Previous To ...