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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 1

Subdivisions
Subdivisions. The Alps Are Commonly, But Rather Arbitrarily, Divided Into Three Portions. The Western Alps Comprise That Portion Having A North And South Trend, And Extending North Ward To The Great St. Bernard Pass; The Central Alps Extend Thence Eastward To The Brenner Pass, While The Eastern Alps Include The ...

Summer Resorts
Summer Resorts. The Adirondack Region Is One Of The Most Important Places For Summer Recreation For The Dwellers In Cities Of The North Eastern United States, And Many Thousands Turn Annually To It. Lake George. Sehroon Lake, Lake Placid, The Saranaes, The Fulton Chain. Long Lake, The Keene Valley, And ...

Syr Ac
Syr! Ac!. Of The Other Aramaic Languages, The Pales Tinian Aramaic Is Represented Chiefly In The Literary Remains Of The Aramaic-speaking Chris Tians Of Palestine And The Discussions Of The Thibbis In The Palestinian Schools On The Minute Regulations Of Post-exilic Judaism, While The Samaritan Is Of Importance Chiefly Because ...

Tee Earliest Agriculture
Tee Earliest Agriculture. Agriculture Began In Prehistoric Times, When Primitive Man First Began To Select Particular Plants In His Imme Diate Environment As Preferable To Others For His Use As Food Or For Making His Clothes, And When He Fir-4 Directed His Efforts Toward Pro Moting The Growth Of Plants. ...

The Constant Of Aberration
The Constant Of Aberration. From What Has Been Said Above It May Be Seen That The Quantity Of Apparent Displacement Depends On The Velocities Both Of Light And Of The Earth. The Nature Of That Dependence Is Quite Sim Ple: The Velocity Of Light Is Known In Miles Per Second ...

The Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance. Italy Had Seen Some Large Gothic Monuments: Monastic Churches, Such As Santa Croce And Santa Maria Novella In Florence, And The Frari In Venice; Cathedrals, Such As Siena And Milan (q.v. For Illustration) ; But Italian Artists Were Ripe For The Renaissance Style Founded By Brunelleschi And ...

The Nineteenth Century
The Nineteenth Century. In The Nineteenth Century The Progress Of Agriculture Was Pro Foundly Affected By Great General Causes, Some Of Which Exerted A World-wide Influence. Among These Were: (1) The Application Of Science To The Improvement Of Agriculture; (2) The Revolution In Transportation Methods Through The Use Of Steam ...

The Origin And Maintenance
The Origin And Maintenance Of Colonies. The Appearance Of The Winged Males And Females In The Ant Colony, Both Are Guarded By The Workers Until A Suitable Time For Flight. Finally, They Are Let Out On Warm Days In Sum Mer And Autumn To Appear In The Air In Myriads. ...

The Pyloric Tract
The Pyloric Tract. The Straight Tube Of Am Phioxus Is Chiefly An Absorbing Organ, The Diges Tive Secretions Being Poured Into The Cavity From The Liver. Tn The Earth-inhabiting Gymnophiona And Amphiskena And The Elongated Snakes, The Alimentary Tract Is Little Convoluted, Since Here Either The Process Of Absorption Is ...

Thomas Bai Ley Aldrich
Aldrich, Thomas Bai Ley (1836—). An American Mad, Novelist, Traveler, And Editor. Ile Was Born At Portsmouth. N. Il. November 11, 1836. After A Boyhood Spent In New Eng Land And Louisiana. He Entered A Counting-house In New York In Is5-1. Ire Was Employed As "reader" In A Publishing House ...

Tile Arctic Ocean
Tile Arctic Ocean Is The Body Of Water En Circling The North L'ole, And Included Between The Northern Boundaries Of Europe. Asia, North America, Greenland. And The North Atlantic Ocean Above The Arctic Circle, With Which Latter Ocean It Is In Open Connection, While It Is In Communication With The ...

Tile Nineteenth Century
Tile Nineteenth Century. The Regular Se Quence Of Developing Styles Ceases In An Abrupt Way With The Wars Of The French Revolution. Before That Time No Style Of Architecture Had Ever Existed Which Was Not In The Main The Result Of Natural Evolution. Since The Close Of The Eighteenth Century, ...

Titus Aurelius Ful Antoninus
Antoninus Pi'us, Titus Aure'lius Ful Y Es Boioni S Arbil's (86-161 A.d.). A Roman Emperor (138-161 A.d.), Who Was Born At Lanu Vium In The Reign Of Domitian. The Family Of Antoninus Pius Was Originally From Nemausus, Now Nimes, In Gaul. Antoninus Pins Inherited Great Wealth, And Early Gave Proof ...

Topography
Topography. The Land Surface Of The Arctic Region Has Been As Yet But Incompletely Explored, Although The Unremitting Interest In Arctic Ex Ploration Is Gradually Adding To Our Knowledge Of Its Extent And Details. The Loftiest Region Is Greenland, Along The East And West Coasts Of Which There Are Mountains ...

Topography
Topography. The Typical Expression Of Afri Can Topography Is That Of A Plateau That Rises Here And There By Successive Terraces To Increas Ing Elevations Up To And Beyond 4000 Feet, Which Altitude Is The General Level Of The Highland Re Gion That Covers A Large Part Of The Southern ...

Topography_2
Topography. The Surface Is Diversified By The Andean Cordilleras On The Western Border, And By The Interior Highlands; But The Greater Part Of The Area Is A Flat Plain Sloping Gently Toward The Atlantic Ocean. The Andes System In The Northwest Is A Broad Plateau, Broken Into Parallel Or Slightly ...

Trade And Transportation
Trade And Transportation. Albany Is A Terminus Of The Boston And Albany Railroad, And The Division Terminus On The Main Lines Of The West Shore, The New York Central And Hud Son River And The Delaware And Hudson Rail Roads. It Is Thus At The Intersection Of The Great Thoroughfares ...

Transportation And Commerce
Transportation And Commerce. The South Ern Coast Of Alaska Has Numerous Excellent Har Bors, Which Are Accessible The Year Round, As Far North As Sitka And Juneau. The Bays Of The Farther Coast (except. Valdez) Become Filled With Bergs From Glaciers And Pack-ice In Winter, Thus Closing The Head Of ...

Transportation And Communication
Transportation And Communication. Ship Ping.—the Increase In Shipping Facilities Has Kept Pace With Commercial Progress. In 1869 There Was A Total Of 1698 Sailing Vessels And Steamships In The Country. In 1895 There Were 2654; But As Progress In Shipbuilding Made It Possible To Build Larger Vessels, The Total Increase ...

Treatment
Treatment. Healthy Physical And Mental Ex Ercise Is One Of The Best Preventives Of This Accident. In Families Where The Mother Or Grandmother Aborted Frequently, Special Care Of Diet, Exercise, And Clothing Should Be Taken. Constipation Should He Avoided By The Use Of Water And The Green Vegetables. Should The ...

Triumphal Arch
Arch, Triumphal, Or Memorial. Usually A Free-standing Arch, Spanning A Road; Though Sometimes City Gates And Monumental Doorways Are Turned Into Memorial Arches. These Arches Are Erected To Commemorate Triumphs Or Suc Cessful Campaigns. Or Even Great Peaceful Events, Or An Entire Reign, Or Even A Great Family. They Appear ...

Types Or Alimentary Tracts
Types Or Alimentary Tracts. The Simplest May Be Designated The Temporary Type—that Exhibited By Amoeba. This Jelly-like, Amorphous Organism, When It Comes Upon A Solid Particle In The Water, Simply Engulfs It At Any Point By Flowing Around It. The Engulfed Particle Is Sur Rounded By A Sphere Of Water. ...

United States
United States. The United States The First Society For Promoting Agriculture Was Es Tablished At Philadelphia In 1755. In The Same Year A Similar Society Was Formed In South ('arid Inn, To Whieh The Present State Agricul Tural Society Of South Carolina Traces Its Origin. The New York Society For ...

United States Depart Ment
Agriculture, United States Depart Ment Of. The Department Was Established As A Separate Branch Of The Government In 1s62. It Grew Out Of A Voluntary Distribution Of Seeds, Begun By The Commissioner Of Patents In 1836. In 1839, Congress Made An Appropriation Of 51000 "to Be Taken From The Patent ...

University Of Amsterdam
Amsterdam, University Of. A Dutch University Founded By The City In 1032 As The Atheneum Illustre. After A Checkered Existence It Was Reorganized In 1867. And In 1877 Was Raised To The Dignity Of A Royal University, Rank Ing With Leyden, Groningen, And Utrecht. It Has An Income Of 372,000 ...

Vegetation And Fauna
Vegetation And Fauna. The Appalachian Region Is Covered With A Dense Forest Growth Where It Has Not Been Removed By Man, Forest Trees Covering The Mountain Slopes Practically To Their Summits, Except Where The Barren Rocks Furnish No Soil. The Chief Trees In The North Are The Sugar Maple, White ...

Vittorio Alfieri
Alfieri, Vittorio, Count (1749-1803). The Most Important Of The Italian Dramatic Poets, A Younger Contemporary Of \letastasio And Goldoni, A Man As Unique In His Personality As In His Writings, And Held In Honor To-day By His Countrymen Less For The Tragedies Which First Made Him Famous Than As The ...

Volatile Oil Of Almonds
Almonds, Volatile Oil Of, Better Known As Benzaldehyde Or Oil Of Bitter Almonds, C,11x110. The Cake Which Is Left After The Expression Of The Fixed Oil From Hitter Almonds Contains, Among Other Matters, Two Substances Called, Respectively, Amygdalin, And Emulsin Or Synaptase. When The Cake Is Bruised And Made Into ...

Volcanoes
Volcanoes. One Of The Striking Features Of The Andes Is Its Great Number Of Active And Extinct Volcanoes. Probably Not Over Sixty Are Now Known To Be Active, But The Extinct Ones Are Numbered By Hundreds, And Have Played A Very Important Part, Though A Secondary One, In Cre Ating ...

Washington 1779 1843 Allston
Allston, Washington (1779-1843). A Dis Tinguished American Painter And Author. Ile Was Born At Waccamaw, S. C., On His Father's Planta Tion, November 5, 1779, But Passed His Childhood And Received His Education And Early Instruction In Art At Newport, Boston, And Cambridge. Mal Bone, The Miniature Painter, Was An ...

Water Hyacinth
Water Hyacinth (eichhornia Erassipes, Or Eichhorniu Speciosa), Which Belongs To The Natu Ral Order Pontideriacem. Occurs In Tropical And Subtropical Streams Of The American Emitinents, Being A Native Of Tropical South America, And Is Widely Cultivated In Europe. It Is Capable Of Growing On Marshy Banks. But Attains A Much ...

Waves And Vibrations
Waves And Vibrations. Since The Direct Cause Of A Sound Is The Reception Into The Ear Of Waves In The Air, It Is Necessary To Analyze The Nature Of These Waves. We May Have An Irregu Lar, Isolated Di4urbanee, Whieh Is Analogous To A "hump" Passing Along A Stretched Rope, ...

Wilhelm August
Wilhelm August One Of The •ost Eminent German Astronomers Of The Nine Teenth Century. He Was Horn At Memel, Prus Sia. He Studied At Konigsberg, Where The Political Sciences First Attracted Him; Hut He Was Subsequently Drawn Away To Astronomy By The Lectures Of Bessel, By Whom He Was Employed ...

William 1726 83 Alexander
Alexander, William ( 1726-83 ) . An American Soldier, Generally Called "lord Stir Ling." He Was Born In New York City And Was The Son Of James Alexander (1690-1756), A Colo Nial Lawyer And Atto•ney-general Of New York (1721-23) Who Took An Active Part In The Defense Of Zenger (q.v.), ...

Wlialing Sealing
Sealing, Wlialing, Fur-hunting, And Fish Eries. The Seals That Visit The Shores Of Especially From The Aleutian Islands Northward, Are The Main Dependence Of The Natives For Food, Furnishing Materials For Boat-building, House Making. Dog-harness, Etc., And Are Hunted Perti Naciously With Guns, Spears, Nets, Etc., And Their Skills Are ...

Wooden Structures
Wooden Structures, While Wood Was Un Doubtedly Used Largely By The Prehistoric Tribes Of America For Habitations As Well As For Imple Ments. Utensils. Etc., Eomparatively Little Of The Material Remains For Study. In Certain Large Tumuli Described By Thomas. Remains Of Wooden Structures Were Found Under Such Conditions As ...

The Abbassides
Abbas'sides, The (ar. Al-`abbasiyall). Ca Liphs Of Bagdad, And The Most Celebrated :moslem Dynasty. Although Their Rule Never Extended Over The Whole Of Islam, As Had That Of The Ommiads (q.v.). It Was Never Acknowledged In Spain And Only Nominally In Africa Outside Of Egypt. Theirs Was. However, The True ...

The Agreement Ofthe
Agreement Of The People, The. A Remarkable Document Set Forth By The Council Of The Army. January 15. 1619, Fifteen Days Before The Execution Of King Charles 1. Of England. It Is Based Upon "the Heads Of The Proposals Offered By The Arm•," August I. 1647, Except That No Reference ...