JORIS, yO'ris. or JORISZOON, DAvio (e.1501-56). An Anabaptist leader. born either at Ghent or Bruges. He was apprenticed to a glass-painter, and soon displayed great aptitude in the work. To perfect himself in the art, he visited Belgium, Frame, and England. Returning to Holland. he settled at Delft, practicing his trade (1524) : but in 1528 he began to display unusual religious zeal against Roman Cathol icism, and, while a procession on Aseension Day was passing in Delft, he stopped the priests, accused them of deceiving, the people by false teachings, and reproached them for wor shiping images and pictures. lie was arrested and banished for three years. Abandoning the common principles of the Reformation, he became an adherent of Anabaptist views. At first he did not identify himself with the sect, on account of their disorderly conduct and their doctrine of using the sword to establish their authority; hut in 1534 he fully joined them by rebaptism. He was consecrated as Bishop of Delft by Dammas, Cbbo, and others. Ilis influence was very great and his followers numerous. The Anabaptist leaders, jealous of his success, openly disavowed him. But at the convocation of Anabaptists in 15:36 Joris fearlessly declared himself a divinely appointed leader, and soon afterwards issued a pamphlet calling all parties to a peaceful union. The leaders Wel'e still more provoked, and most of the Anabaptists forsook him. Those who adhered to him took the name of Jurists or Da vidists. lie professed to have visions and revelations, and in terpreted the perseeutions to whieh his followers were subjected as proofs of the divine favor. At. Delft, Haarlem, Amsterdam. Rotterdam, 1.eyden, and other cities. many suffered death for their adherence to him. his own mother died on the scaffold, a martyr to the doctrines which her son was propagating (February, 1538). Ile kept up
his wandering life till 1544. when, the voluntary gifts of his followers rendering him independent, he altered his life completely. In Basel in August of that year appeared a man by the name of John of Bruges. He was wealthy, a communi cant in the lheformed Church, and had come there with his family. lie was highly esteemed for his wealth and his virtues. and died peace August 25, 1556. This was David Joris. For three years his secret was kept. Then his son in-law, Nicholas Blesdyk, a reformed preacher, but an avaricious and unprincipled man. who had been his disciple, revealed the identity of John of Bruges with David .Joris. The clergy and uni versity declared his opinions heretical, and his. body was dug up and burned. The sect, which ;fol•s had secretly communicated with while living in Basel, survived his death half a cen tury, and circulated his writings. .Joris was a. thorough and believed that he had divine visions. He rejected the doctrine of the Trinity, and held strange views concerning Christ. lie be lieved that he was to establish internally and ex ternally the eternal kingdom of Christ, which before was the kingdom of Christ only internally. lie denied the doctrine of future judgment and the existence of angels. lie held that the hotly only was defiled by sin. Of his 250 books and 1000 letters. the most important is the Book of Miracles. under the title of Wonderborek. In it he adopts the idea of Joachim of Floris (q.v.), of three dispensations. For a complete account of his life and works, consult Nippold's articles in Zeitsrlirift far Thrologic, 1863, 1864, 1SGS; for a bibliography of his writings. Van der Linde (The Hague, 1867). See DAvuusTs.