ATUNICLPAL FUNCTIONS. The functions of a mu nicipality include all the public activities of the city, whether direct. such as laying out and maintaining streets, or indirect. such as regulat ing traffic and maintaining order on the public thoroughfares. These activities are many and complex, and frequently overlap, lint they may be grouped as follows: (1) The so-called public utili ties, which include ways and means of mummifi cation and transportation, together with the sup ply of light and water to the inhabitants: (2) dis posal of wastes: ( 3 ) protection of life. health. and property; (4) charities and correction: (5) edu eation: (ti) recreation : (7l municipal housing. The provision of ways and memm of communi cation. owl trunsportotion is one of the first and most obvious functions of municipal govern ment. Its basis is the public streets. upon the surface of which all land traffic moves, be neath which are placed pipes to bring in munici pal supplies and to carry out wastes. and either above or below which are wires for transmit ting messages. As an aid to the movement of street traffic, it falls within the duties of the municipal government either to provide street railways or to see that they are provided and properly operated by private enterprise. In many of the English and Scotch cities the street railways have been constructed and are owned by the municipality itself. although it is a com mon practice to lease them to a private eompany for operation. In the United States this is usu ally a function of private enterprise, subject to the supervision of the city. Where waterways are involved, bridges and perhaps ferries must be provided, and frequently docks, wharves. and harbors as well. bridges are now almost always built. at public expense, :iftd are as free to all as the streets, hut sometimes bridges are owned by private companies, and sometimes. hut rarely in large municipalities, toll is charged for the use of the bridges. The construction and control of
harbors is not a municipal function in the United States. and in other countries their care is gen erally a function of the national government. Alunicipal docks are far more common than muni cipal harbors. Where docks are required, they often are or may be an important source of rev enue: but the first consideration should be to afford every facility for the speedy and cheap handling of goods and passengers. The relation of municipal government to the telephone and telegraph service is chiefly regulative, especially in the United States, and thus far extends lint little beyond the police control of the electric wires involved.
One of the most important municipal services is the supply of water for household and indus trial purposes-, for tire protection, and for sewer and street flushing. The lighting service, like the water supply, is both for public and pri vate use. The light furnished may be either in the form of gas or electricity. Almost every where at present the water and lighting, sup plies are municipal functions. although they may he intrusted to private eompanies. Municipal markets for the sale of meat and other food sup plies are frequently maintained for the sake of both COI1VPIlionCe and sanitation. The sanitary aspects of cattle markets, abattoirs, and slaughter houses are of great importance. Consequently, where markets are not provided. the municipal health authorities exercise, or should exercise, a rigid supervision over private markets, and also over the various foods prepared or exposed for sale therein. The simply of such articles as milk and ice to the inhabitants is left to private enterprise, but on sanitary grounds is usually subject to regulation by the municipal govern ment.