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Murillo

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MURILLO, ini-riTyei. BAIITOLONIE ESTEBAN (1617-82). A Spanish religious and genre paint. er of the school of Seville. lie was, after Velazquez, the greatest figure in Spanish art. and unquestionably the most important religious painter of Spain. Ile was horn in Seville, prob ably December 31. 1617. Very little is known of his early life. When quite young he was prenticed to his uncle. Juan del Castillo. from whom he learned the rudiments of painting; but upon the departure of the latter to Cadiz in 1640, Murillo was left without means, and for the succeeding two years he supported himself by painting rough, brilliantly colored pictures for the Feria, a weekly market. Ilk close tact with the beggars and print-sellers gave him unusual opportunity for studying their char acteristics, and his reproductions of them upon canvas exhibit a sympathy and realism alike notable. These earlier works may be cited as representing the first period. during which he attained results intensely ized and at the same time expressive of the type.

The example of Moya, a fellow pupil in the studio of Castillo, made Slurillo discontented with his position at Seville, and lie resolved to visit Rome, but, not having the means for the longer journey, set out on foot for Madrid. Velazquez gave him shelter in his own house and access to the royal galleries, Where, with untiring zeal, he copied Ribera, Titian, bens, Van Dyck, Velazquez, and other masters. This course of practice. extending from 1642 to 1645. gave him a much freer style and greater control of chief characteristics of his second This era, generally known as his 'warm [ealido] was characterized by the execution of works exhibiting especially terly control of color contrasts. The series of pictures upon which the painter was employed from 1645 to 16.18 for the small Franciscan vent near Casa del Ayuntamiento typify the early works of this second period. and through their success he reeeived many commissions.

In 164ti .Murillo married a wealthy and noble wife, and his house became the resort for the distinguished people of Seville. In 1650. upon the death of Pacheco, he became the edged head of the Seville school and the president of the academy founded in 1660. During these years he was continually improving in style. becoming more idealistic in conception and dividual in technique. The result of this tional epoch was the third period or last phase. known as et c(sporosn, from a certain vaporous or misty effect prollneed. A favorite subject of era was the '• Immaculate Concept which he painted no fewer than twenty times. the most famous example being in the Louvre, Paris. It was taken from Spain by Marshal Soul t. and hough( by the Frenell Covernment at the Soult sale, in 1852. for 580.000 francs, Murillo is very popular with the general lic, lint less so with the artists, who. while

aeknowledging his facility and charm. find his work lacking in technique, force, and originality. Ilk work is highly subjective: so much so that the attention of the beholder is attracted to the personality and technique of the artist rather than to the subject represented. importance consists in the wonderful manner in which he employed the medium of Spanish real istic forms to express ideal religious conceptions.

of the work of the artist was taken from Spain during the Peninsular campaign, a fact that accounts for the number of tine ex amples to be found in the galleries of Europe; the various collections of London possess 105 of his paintings, and those of Paris 21. Among his principal works were eight large pictures painted for the hospital of Saint George (1061 74), of which three—viz. "Moses Striking the Rock," the "Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes," and "San Juan de Dios Attending the Sick"— remain in their original places.

The Cathedral of Seville is rich in his works, among which are: "Saints Leander and Isidore ;" the "Vision of Saint Anthony" (1656) ; and "La Purissima" (1008). In the museum are seven teen of the twenty-six pictures painted for the Capuchin monastery at Seville, among which are four "Immaculate Conceptions." In the Prado Musemn (Madrid) are the beautiful "Children of the Shell" (the infants Jesus and John). the "Adoration of the Shepherds," the "Education of the Virgin," and "Saint Elizabeth of Hungary Healing a Leper." Other famous works are: "The Birth of Mary" (1655) and "The Holy Family, with Saint Elizabeth" ( 1070), in the Louvre; "The Vision of Saint Anthony." in the Berlin Museum. The hest examples of Murillo's are in the galleries of Dres den, Madrid, Seville, Florence (Pitti Palace), and Rome (Corsini Palace). Of his admir able series of genre subjects representing children in the action of eating, throwing dice, and selling fruit and flowers. the best-known examples are in the national collections of Munich, Paris (Louvre), London, and Saint Petersburg. Murino's last work was the altar piece of Saint Catharine. painted at Cadiz for the Church of the Capuchins. The picture was never completed, owing to a fall, which compelled his return to Seville. where he died shortly after wards, April 3, 1082. Ile was buried, by his own request. in the Cathedral of Seville, before Pedro de Campagna's picture of the "Deposition from the Cross." Consult the biographies of Murillo by Tubino (Seville, 1864) : Stromer ( Berlin, 1879) ; Lticke, in Dolune. Kunst and Kiinsticr, vol. iii. (Leipzig, 1880) : Minor, in "Great Artists Series" (London, 1882) ; Alfonso (Barcelona, 1586) ; Justi (Leipzig. 1892) ; Knackfuss (Bielefeld, 1896). See, also, Curtis, l'clasquez and Murillo (London. 1883) ; Lefort, Murillo et sus aercs (Paris, 1592) ; Stirling-Maxwell, An nals of the Artists of Spain (London, 1848).