MURRAY RIVER. The principal river of Australia, draining, together with the Darling. practically the whole southeastern quarter of the continent. It rises in the Australian Alps near the eastern boundary of Victoria, and flows for two-thirds of its course northwestward. forming the boundary between Victoria and New South Wales (Map: Australia, O 5). After entering South Australia, it makes an abrupt turn to the south. and enters the Indian Ocean through En counter Itay, 40 miles soutlwast of Adelaide. Its length is about 1500 miles. Vor the first 60 miles of its (-purse it passes between precipitous rocky din's, in one place, known as the Alurray Oates, reaching an enormous height, while some of the highest peaks of the continent arc close to either shore. After passing through Oates the hills become gradually lower, and finally the river enters the immense Australhin Plains. Dere the
Murray is sluggish. with numerous windings, and flanked by lagoons. It receives here scarcely any tributaries except a few very large ones coining from the mountains. Among these are the rumbidgee (q.v.). which is longer than the main stream from the point of confluence, and the Dar ling whose length exeeeds that of the entire main stream. During the dry season the river shrinks eviii in its lower course to a width of less than 300 feet, lint in winter its volume inereases enormously, and great inundations oc cur. 111 the wet season it is navigable for small steamers for the greater part of its course as far as Alliury. but its mouth, owing to sand is inaccessible for large vessels. There are is of ports 011 W1110,e 0101 ,..hip• ping probably :11111)111d ? to more than one and a half million tons annually.