MURRAY, originally MACMURRAY, (1745-931. The first of four great English lishers, dolin Mae11nrray, of (lie stock of the Murray. of Athol, was born in Edinburgh. ing served as lieutenant of marine (1762-08), he retired on half pay and began to publish and sell books in London. John purchased the bookselliug business of Paul Sanglby, opposite Saint. Church. London. and, dropping the Scottish prefix. beenme a bookseller and purehaser at '32 Fleet lle brought mit the t:miligh Reriew, and published the first two volumes of the elder Curiosities of Literature, etc. lie died November 16, 1793, and was succeeded in due time by his son Jon N 11778-1843). One of the earliest hits of John the second was Mrs. Rundall's Dot/untie Cookery (18081, which had been through sixty-five edi tions by 1841. AVM) the cotiperation of Scott, Canning, and others, he founded the Quarterly Rericie, a Tory organ, in opposition to the 1Vhig Edinburgh Review, then at the height of its influence. The first number was published February I. 1809, under the editorship of William Gifford. The new periodical was completely suc cessful, and brought Murray into communication not only with the chief writers. lint also with
the conservative statesmen of the time. A still more fortunate acquaintance was that with Lord Byron, whose Childc Darold (11rst two cantos) was published by Murray in 1812. Murray now removed from Fleet Street to Albemarle Street. where the business is still carried on. Almost all the literary magnates of the day were four o'clock visitors in Albemarle Street. Alurray paid Byron nearly £20,000 for his works, and his dealings with Crabbe„ Moore, Campbell, and Irving were princely. The second John Murray died in 1843. and was succeeded by his son, JOHN :MURRAY the third, who was born in 1808. Ile was educated first at the Charter House. and afterwards at Edinburgh University. Many great works in history, biography, travel, art, and science were issued by the third Murray. Among his successes were Livingstone's Trarels and Last Journals; Smiles's Life of George Stephenson: and Darwin's origin of Species by Natural Selection. At his death (April 2. 1892) lie was succeeded by his son, the fourth Julia Iiirray (born in 18.51). Consult Smiles, .1 Publisher and His Friends (London, 1891).