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Mustard of

seeds, europe and pods

MUSTARD ( OF. moustarde, Fr. mou to rdc, from OF. moust, Iron, Lat. mustuin, nin,t, of mustus, fresh), Brassica. A genus of plants of the natural order Crueiferir, having yellow flowers, and linear or oblong pods. which ter minate in a sword-shaped, compressed, or four cornered beak, and contain one row of seeds. The black mustard (Brassier/. is all annual, which grows wild in fields and by waysides in the middle and south of Europe. Its pods are bluntly four-angled, smooth, erect, and lie close to the stem, their valves one-nerved; the leaves are smooth, the lower ones lyrate, the upper linear-lanceolate; the seeds are brownish black. White mustard (Brassica alba), also a native of most parts of Europe, is an annual having divergent pods covered with stiff hairs. the valves five-nerved, the seeds yellowish, the leaves pinna tifid. Both these species are oultivated in Europe and to a limited extent in America, for their seeds. which are ground into powder to make the well known condiment called mustard. The mustard of commerce is frequently mixed with flour and commonly colored with turmeric. The powder of

the seeds is also much used in medicine as a rubefacient. Mustard seeds depend for their pungency on a principle which, when water is added to black mustard, forms volatile oil of mustard. There is also in the seeds a bland fixed oil, oil of mustard, which is obtained from them by expression, and constitutes about 28 per cent. of their weight. White mustard is often sown in gardens and forced in hot-houses for use as a salad. It is also sometimes sown as a green manure crop and for feeding sheep. when turnip or rape has failed. Wild mustard, or charlock (Brassica arrrasis, or Sinapistritin of senile botanists), which is distinguished by turgid and knotty pods with many angles and longer than the two-edged beak. is a troublesome annual weed ill both Europe and America. It is controlled by spraying with a 2 per cent. solution of copper sul phate or 12 to 15 per cent. iron sulphate at the rate of 50 to 70 gallons per acre. (See 11F.11111